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   Elminius modestus (crustacean)
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         Interim profile, incomplete information
    Taxonomic name: Elminius modestus Darwin, 1854
    Synonyms: Austrominius modestus
    Common names: Australian barnacle, Australische Seepocke (German), Australseepocke (German), Firepladet rur (Danish), Kruisridderpok (Dutch), New Zealand barnacle, Nieuw-Zeelandse zeepok (Dutch), Sterretje (Dutch)
    Organism type: crustacean
    Elminius modestus has spread successfully throughout the Western Europe coastal areas, since its introduction to the southeast coast of the Uk most probably on the hull of ships from New Zealand and /or Australia between 1940 and 1943. There are several factors that aid Elminius success as an invader. Elminius larval stages are eurythermal and euryhaline, enabling them to survive in a wide range of habitat types. E. modestus is a highly fecund species and has a short generation time. It is highly tolerant of changes in tempertaure and salinity. E. modestus compete with native barnacle species for space. It has been observed that the successful range expansion of the barnacle could be facilitated by a changing climate with warmer seas and tempertaures.
    Occurs in:
    estuarine habitats, marine habitats
    General impacts
    Elminius modestus competes for space with the native barnacle Balanus balanoides along the coasts of Western Europe where it has spread widely (Crisp & Chipperfield 1948; Crisp 1958; Nehring, 2005; Barnes & Barnes 1960).

    Witte et al (2010) report that Austrominius modestus (=Elminius modestus) which was first reported on the Island of Sylt (North Sea) in 1955 and remained rare, has overtaken native barnacles Semibalanus balanoides and Balanus crenatus in abundance when surveyed in the summer of 2007. The authors suggest that this exponential increase in population numbers could be due to mild winters and warm summers over a period.

    Geographical range
    Native range: Australia, New Zealand (NOBANIS 2010)
    Known introduced range: United Kingdom- Ireland, Scotland; Europe: Netherlands, Germany, France, Italy, Spain, Portugal (Crisp & Chipperfield 1948; Crisp 1958; Crisp & Southward 1959; O'Riordan & Ramsey 1960; Barnes & Barnes 1960); Japan (Otani et al 2007); South Africa (Sandison 1950).
    Introduction pathways to new locations
    Natural dispersal: Crisp (1958) noted two types of dispersal natural or 'marginal' dispersal at an average of 20-30 kms per year and long distance or 'remote' dispersal on the hull of a boat or ship.
    Ship/boat hull fouling: Crisp (1958) noted two types of dispersal natural or 'marginal' dispersal at an average of 20-30 kms per year and long distance or 'remote' dispersal on the hull of a boat or ship.
    Compiled by: IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) with support from the Overseas Territories Environmental Programme (OTEP) project XOT603, a joint project with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment
    Last Modified: Tuesday, 8 June 2010


ISSG Landcare Research NBII IUCN University of Auckland