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   Buddleja madagascariensis (vine, climber, shrub)
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    Taxonomic name: Buddleja madagascariensis Lam.
    Synonyms: Adenoplea madagascariensis Lam., Buddleia madagascarienses Lam., Buddleja heterophylla Lindl., Buddleja madagascariensis, Buddleja nicodemia, Buddleya madagascarienses Lam., Nicodemia madagascariensis
    Common names: buddleia bush (English), butterfly bush (English), Madagascar buddleia (English), Madagascar butterfly bush (English), smoke bush (English)
    Organism type: vine, climber, shrub
    Buddleja madagascariensis commonly known as smokebush, is a shrub native to Madagascar; it has been introduced outside its native range as an ornamental plant. Easily dispersed bird or wind-borne seeds and the ability to regenerate from stem fragments has led to the naturalisation of B. madagascariensis in many tropical and sub-tropical areas. As B. madagascariensis forms thick, impenetrable thickets, native vegetation can be smothered and excluded. As well as this, B. madagascariensis can cause throat allergies and coughing, nose swelling and eyelid blisters when dry. The sap of B. madagascariensis is also known to be toxic, potentially causing burning rashes and blisters. The need to exclude livestock from B. madagascariensis has resulted in an economic impact in some areas, especially as it is difficult to control.
    Description
    Buddleja madagascariensis is a sprawling shrub that grows to 2 -3 m tall with stems densely tomentose. Leaves are opposite and narrowly ovate between 7 - 12 cm in length and 2 - 4.5 cm wide. The upper surface of the leaves is glabrous, while the lower surface is densely tomentose. Petioles are between 1.5 and 2.5 cm long. Flowers grow in terminal, thyrsoid cymes and calyx is campanulate or bell-shaped. They are densely tomentose and are roughly 3 mm long with lobes about 0.5 mm long. Corolla is orange and densely tomentose externally while glabrous internally. Ovary is pubescent. Fruits are fleshy and spherical, appearing white while becoming bluish-purple at maturity. Fruit are indehiscent with ellipsoid seeds about 1 mm in length (Wagner et al., 1999; in PIER, 2008). Each fruit may cantain hundreds of seeds with propellers that aid in wind dispersal (Hawaii Early Detection Network, 2010). Please follow this link for images of smokebush Starr & Starr, 2008.
    Similar Species
    Buddleja asiatica, Buddleja davidii, Buddleja dyssophylla

    More
    Occurs in:
    natural forests, planted forests, ruderal/disturbed, urban areas
    Habitat description
    Buddleja madagascariensis is known to grow as a weed in forests and on roadsides in Hawaii (Motooka et al., 2003; in PIER, 2008) and Australia (FloraBase, 2010). In Australia, B. madagascariensis grows amongst tall trees (in Eucalyptus patens woodland); in gravelly soil, loam, sand (over limestone); occupying flats, limestone cliffs, steep slopes and river valleys (FloraBase, 2010). It is also capable of growing in disturbed natural vegetation and in gardens (FloraBase, 2010).

    B. madagascariensis is known as an aggressive invader of disturbed areas in Hawaii, especially at low to mid elevations including open range, stream beds, and gulches (Hawaii Invasive Species, 2010). Also invades mesic to humic forests in Hawaii (Motooka et al., 2003; in PIER, 2008), becoming naturalised in mesic areas between 900 and 1200 m above sea level (Wagner et al., 1999; in PIER, 2008). In New Zealand, it occurs on sand dunes and coastal cliffs (Webb et al., 1988; in PIER, 2008).

    General impacts
    Buddleja madagascariensis forms dense impenetrable thickets that can smother and exclude native vegetation (FloraBase, 2010). Additionally, leaf litter accumulation does not impede regeneration of broken stems (FloraBase, 2010).

    B. madagascariensis can cause throat allergies in some people (FloraBase, 2010) and when dry, a powdery dust can emerge which may cause coughing, nose swelling and eyelid blisters (Hawaii Early Detection Network, 2010). The milky white sap can also cause burning rashes and blisters (Hawaii Early Detection Network, 2010).

    B. madagascariensis has had an economic impact on ranchers in Australia, as it has a toxic effect on cattle and horses and must be kept away at the rancher's expense (Hawaii Early Detection Network, 2010).

    Uses
    Cultivated as an ornamental plant. Grown in Australia for rubber production (Hawaii Early Detection Network, 2010).
    Geographical range
    Native range: Madagascar.
    Buddleja madagascariensis has been widely cultivated, often becoming naturalised in tropical and sub-tropical regions (Wagner et al., 1999; in PIER, 2008).
    Known introduced range: Includes: various islands in the Pacfic (including the Hawaiian Islands, Viti Levu Island in Fiji, and New Caledonia) (PIER, 2008); a number of Australian states (Western Australia, New South wales and Queensland) (PIER, 2008; Florabase, 2010); New Zealand ((Howell & Clayson, 2008; PIER, 2008); South Africa (Henderson, 2007); The United States (Florida) (USDA, 2010); Puerto Rico (USDA, 2010) and a number of islands in the Atlantic (Bermuda, Ascension, St. Helena) (Smith, 1996; Gray et al., 2005; Varnham, 2006).
    Introduction pathways to new locations
    Agriculture: Planted in Australia for rubber production (Hawaii Early Detection Network, 2010).
    For ornamental purposes: Often cultivated as an ornamental plant (Hawaii Early Detectiion Network, 2010).


    Local dispersal methods
    Garden escape/garden waste: Known to spread through water and garden refuse (FloraBase, 2010)
    Natural dispersal (local): Fruit is appealing to birds who ingest seeds and disperse them
    On animals: Known to be dispersed in Australia through mud sticking to machinery and animals (Hawaii Early Detection Network, 2010)
    Translocation of machinery/equipment (local): Known to be dispersed in Australia through mud sticking to machinery and animals (Hawaii Early Detection Network, 2010)
    Water currents: Known to spread through water and garden refuse (FloraBase, 2010)
    Wind dispersed: Seed pods contain hundreds of seeds with propellers that assist in wind dispersal (Hawaii Early Detection Network, 2010).
    Management information
    Preventive measures: A Risk Assessment of Buddleja madagascariensis for Hawai‘i and other Pacific islands was prepared by Dr. Curtis Daehler (UH Botany) with funding from the Kaulunani Urban Forestry Program and US Forest Service. The alien plant screening system is derived from Pheloung et al.. (1999) with minor modifications for use in Pacific islands (Daehler et al., 2004). The result is a score of 7 and a recommendation of: "Likely to cause significant ecological or economic harm in Hawai‘i and on other Pacific Islands as determined by a high WRA score, which is based on published sources describing species biology and behaviour in Hawai‘i and/or other parts of the world."

    Chemical: "Katie Cassel of the Kōke‘e Natural History Museum (Kōke‘e Museum) reported good control of stems < 3 inches diameter with triclopyr ester at 20% in crop oil applied to basal bark and to larger stems that were frilled" (Motooka et al., 2003; in PIER, 2008). FloraBase (2010) suggests that for stems greater than 7 cm diameter, apply 250 ml Access® in 15 L of diesel to basal 50 cm of stem (basal bark) or cut and paint with 50% glyphosate.

    Physical: Smaller plants (< 7 cm diameter) can be hand pulled, making sure to remove all stem material (FloraBase, 2010).

    Reproduction
    Buddleja madagascariensis can reproduce from stem fragments and is capable of resprouting quicky after a fire (FloraBase, 2010). Fruit are appealling to frugivorous birds, who then locally disperse seeds across the landscape (Hawaii Early Detection Network, 2010). While seeds are not produced in Australia, the ability to regenerate from stem fragments allows dispersal to distant locations as stems may be carried by birds humans or waterways (Stock & Wild, 2002, FloraBase, 2010). Flowers in April, July and August in Australia (FloraBase, 2010).
    Compiled by: IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) with support from the Overseas Territories Environmental Programme (OTEP) project XOT603, a joint project with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment
    Last Modified: Tuesday, 1 June 2010


ISSG Landcare Research NBII IUCN University of Auckland