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   Paspalum scrobiculatum (grass)     
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         Interim profile, incomplete information
    Taxonomic name: Paspalum scrobiculatum L.
    Synonyms: Paspalum cartilagineum J. Presl, Paspalum commersonii Lam., Paspalum orbiculare G. Forst., Paspalum polystachyum R. Br., Paspalum scrobiculatum var. bispicatum, Paspalum scrobiculatum var. commersonii (Lam.) Stapf, Paspalum scrobiculatum var. polystachyum (R. Br.) Stapf, Paspalum scrobiculatum var. scrobiculatum
    Common names: co duru levu (Fijian), cow grass, creeping paspalum, desum (Palauan), ditch millet, Indian crown grass, Indian paspalum, kodo (Hindi), kodo millet, Kodohirse (German), kodomillet, kodo-millet, kodra (Hindi), mijo koda (Spanish), native Paspalum, rice grass, ricegrass paspalum, tho ndina (Fijian), tho nduru levu (Fijian), tho ni ndina (Fijian), water couch
    Organism type: grass
    Paspalum scrobiculatum is a noxious weed in the United States and is potentially invasive in the Pacific.
    Description
    Paspalum scrobiculatum is a tufted perennial grass; 120 to 150 cm tall; culms stout, erect, glabrous, somewhat bulbous at base, sheaths 7 to 14 cm long, glabrous or with sparse hairs at the collar, compressed, basal ones often purplish; ligule very short, but with a dense row of hairs just behind it; blades flat, 12 to 40 cm long, 3 to 12 mm wide, acute, scabrous, glaucous on upper surface; inflorescence of 4 to 6 racemes, these 2 to 4 cm long, alternate, distant, their axis 4 to 9 cm long, villous at base, sometimes pilose in the axils; rachis 1 to 1.5 mm wide, scabrous, usually reddish on the margins; spikelets paired, 2 to 2.5 mm long, broadly elliptic, imbricate, glabrous; second glume and sterile lemma 3-nerved; fertile lemma indurated, finely pitted; caryopsis 1.5 mm long, compressed-elliptic, pale (Stone 1970, in PIER 2006).
    Please follow this link for images: Forestry Images. 2008. Kodomillet .
    Occurs in:
    agricultural areas, range/grasslands, riparian zones, ruderal/disturbed, scrub/shrublands, urban areas, wetlands
    Habitat description
    Invaded habitat: Along the ditch, road sides, upland and tidal rice fields, rubber plantations; wet, open, cultivated areas; up to 1800 m altitude (SEAMEO BIOTROP 2008).
    In Fiji, Paspalum scrobiculatum is abundant at elevations up to 1 300 m in clearings, along roadsides, in pastures, ditches, waste land, etc. (Smith 1979, in PIER 2006). In Hawaii, P. scrobiculatum is common on slopes in poor, thin soil where few other grasses will grow, and in wet, swampy ground, 0 to 1 070 m (Wagner et al. 1999, in PIER 2006).
    General impacts
    Paspalum scrobiculatum is declared a 'noxious or quarantine weed' in at least ten states in America. It is declared a noxious weed by the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA-APHIS).
    Uses
    Paspalum scrobiculatum is economically important. Its uses include: human food (cereal), animal food (fodder, forage) and medicine (USDA-NRCS 2008). It is harvested as a wild cereal in west Africa and in India.
    Geographical range
    Native range: Native to Africa (SEAMEO BIOTROP 2008).
    Known introduced range:
    Compiled by: IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) with support from the EU-funded South Atlantic Invasive Species project, coordinated by the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds (RSPB)
    Last Modified: Monday, 16 August 2010


ISSG Landcare Research NBII IUCN University of Auckland