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   Bambusa vulgaris (草, 喬木)  English   
生態 分佈 管理 影響 參考資料 聯繫

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    學名: Bambusa vulgaris Schrad. ex J.C. Wendl.
    同種異名: Arundarbor arundinacea (Retz.) Kuntze, Arundarbor bambos Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. 2, 1891, Arundarbor blancoi (Steudel) Kuntze 1891, Arundarbor fera (Miquel) Kuntze 1891, Arundarbor fera Rumphius 1743, Arundarbor monogyna (Blanco) Kuntze 1891, Arundo bamboa Miller 1768, Arundo bambos L., Arundo fera Oken 1841, Bambos arundinacea Retz., Bambusa arundinacea var. picta Moon 1824, Bambusa auriculata Kurz ex Cat. Hort. Bot. Calc., 1864, Bambusa balcooa Roxburgh 1832, Bambusa bambos (L.) Voss, Bambusa blancoi Steudel 1854, Bambusa capensis Rupr., Bambusa fera Miquel 1857, Bambusa humilis Reichenbach ex. Ruprecht 1839, Bambusa madagascariensis hort. ex A. & C. Rivière 1878, Bambusa mitis Blanco 1837, Bambusa monogyna Blanco 1837, Bambusa sieberi Grisebach 1864, Bambusa striata Lodd., Bambusa surinamensis Ruprecht 1839, Bambusa thouarsii Kunth 1822, Bambusa tuldoides Munro, Bambusa vasaria Herbier Hamilton, Dendrocalamus balcooa (Roxburgh) Voigt 1845, Leleba vulgaris (Schrader ex Wendland) Nakai 1933, Nastus thouarsii (Kunth) Raspail 1825, Nastus viviparus Raspail 1825, Phyllostachys striata (Lodd. ex Lindl.) Nakai
    俗名: agarabà (Nigeria), aur beting (Malay-Malaysia), aur gading (Malay-Malaysia), bacáu (Mexico), bakal (India), balé (Ivory Coast), bambou (French), bambu (Spanish), bambu ampel (Indonesian Bahasa-Indonesia), bambu blenduk (Indonesian Bahasa-Indonesia), bambú común (Spanish), bambu kuning (Malay-Malaysia), bambu kuning (Indonesian Bahasa-Indonesia), bambú patamba (Spanish-Mexico), bambúa (Spanish), bambu-verde (Portuguese), bambu-vulgar (Portuguese), bannada bidiru (India), baran (Sierra Leone), basini bans (India), basinibans (India), bolinao (Philippines), bolinau (Philippines), boo (Sierra Leone), buloh aur (Malay-Malaysia), buloh gading (Malay-Malaysia), buloh kuning (Malay-Malaysia), buloh minyak (Malay-Malaysia), buloh minyak has (Malay-Malaysia), buloh pau (Malay-Malaysia), buluh aur (Malay-Malaysia), buluh minyak (Malay-Malaysia), buluh pau (Malay-Malaysia), burirau (Philippines), butong (Philippines), caña brava (Spanish-Cuba), caña India (Spanish), cañambú (Spanish-Cuba), cañaza (Spanish-Panama), chan kham (Thailand), common bamboo (English), cupamu (Mexico), dai-san-chiku (Japanese-Japan), davike (India), domar (Indonesia), feathery bamboo (English), gemeiner bambus (German), golden bamboo (English), grand bambou (French), haladi bidiru (India), haur (Indonesia), i ngol (Senegal), igbon ikirai (Nigeria), itikna (Nicaragua), kabaloan (Philippines), kaho palangi (Pacific), kaho papalangi (Pacific), kalaka (India), kanale (Sierra Leone), kasul (Sierra Leone), kauayan (Philippines), kauayan-china (Philippines), kauayan-kiling (Philippines), kawayan (Philippines), kawayan-china (Philippines), kawayang-kiting (Philippines), kawayang-tsina (Philippines), kawayan-kiling (Philippines), ken (Sierra Leone), kenye (Sierra Leone), kewe (Sierra Leone), kiling (Philippines), kinshi-chiku (Japanese-Japan), ko-tatami (Guinea), labong (Philippines), lefyog (Cameroon), limas (Philippines), linetso (Congo), lulasi (Malawi), lunas (Philippines), mai-luang (Thailand), mambu kakar (New Guinea), mambu yang (New Guinea), maribal (Philippines), marobal (Philippines), mfele (Cameroon), mlasi (Malawi), musyombe (Malawi), ngmalu (Upper Volta), nsungwi (Malawi), otate (Mexico), patong (Philippines), patung (Philippines), phai cheen (Thailand), phai chin (Thailand), phai lueang (Thailand), phai-bongkham (Vietnam), phai-luang (Thailand), phai-ngachang (Thailand), pilanda (Sierra Leone), pito (Spanish-Cuba), ponmungil (India), rai yai (Thailand), ree sai (Thailand), ri sai (Thailand), russèi kaèw (Cambodia), s'a:ng kh'am' (Lao-Laos), saang kham (Thailand), sacaú (Mexico), sang kham (Thailand), seemamula (India), semi (Sierra Leone), sen (Sierra Leone), seni (Sierra Leone), senye (Sierra Leone), sii (Sierra Leone), simine (Sierra Leone), sinambang (Philippines), soft bamboo (English), striped bamboo (English), sunderkania bansa (India), taiu-anak (Philippines), tamalang (Malay-Malaysia), tamalang silau (Malay-Malaysia), tambalang (Malay-Malaysia), tamelang (Malay-Malaysia), taring (Philippines), tatami (Guinea), tatami-na (Sierra Leone), teuanak (Philippines), tewanak (Philippines), tiling (Philippines), vyo (Nigeria), wanet (Burma), wok (New Guinea), wusle (Sierra Leone), yellow bamboo (English)
    生物類型: 草, 喬木
    金絲竹(Bambusa vulgaris)是同屬植物中,散播最廣的植物,早已被種植在熱帶和亞熱帶地區。它喜歡低地潮濕的環境,但能容忍範圍廣泛的氣候條件和土壤類型。它歸化後通常會在河岸兩旁、路旁和空地形成單種植群。
    物種描述
    雖然金絲竹(Bambusa vulgaris)是在分類上是草,它的習性是樹狀的。它會形成密集的圓柱形植群,相連結的木質莖,可生長到高達 20公尺,直徑4~10公分;莖節會長出有葉片的分枝,葉片窄矛尖形,長度可達 30公分。
    出現在:
    人造林, 天然林, 水道, 河岸區, 雜草 /受干擾
    棲息地描述
    金絲竹(Bambusa vulgaris)大多自然生長或歸化在河岸,道路兩側,廢棄地,開放地;一般生長在低海拔地區。把它種植在海拔1000公尺潮濕的環境下,長得最好,但也能容忍不利的環境條件,如旱季(此植物可以完全落葉),低溫(可生存在海拔1200公尺-3°C);也能容忍多種土壤類型。(Ohrnberger 1999, p. 279)
    一般影響
    金絲竹(Bambusa vulgaris)出現時會形式廣大的單種植群,排擠掉其他植物。
    金絲竹(B. vulgaris)會沿著溪流拓殖到森林內(布倫德爾等人, 2003)
    用途
    金絲竹(Bambusa vulgaris)被用於建設住房,小屋,小船,圍欄,道具和家具;作為紙漿的原料;金絲竹筍很少被當作蔬菜或牲畜飼料(Barbosa等人記錄到對馬匹有毒);被種植作為觀賞或標記邊界;用來支撐香蕉作物;在新幾內亞,莖部劈開後用來製造掃帚,籃子,莖稈用來製造梳子和套在陰莖上的葫蘆;用來製作樂器;醫藥用途包括作為墮胎劑,治療腎臟疾病,葉片作為發汗退熱藥劑,汁液用來處理發熱,血尿,莖稈用來治療小兒癲癇,樹皮是止痛劑和通經劑(Ohrnberger 1999; Quatrocchi 2006)。
    地理分佈
    原生地:確切來源不明,據報告是亞洲熱帶地區(Quatrocchi 2006),或歐洲熱帶地區,有可能是中國南部或馬達加斯加(Ohrnberger 1999)。
    已知引進地區:廣泛地被引入熱帶和亞熱帶地區,包括許多島嶼。
    管理資訊
    控制金絲竹(Bambusa vulgaris)侵襲是困難的。最好是把它砍除並噴灑除草劑防止再生(Motooka等人, 2003)

    物理方法:挖除此植物可能需要使用重型設備。因為會再萌芽,可能需要後續的移除行動。持續砍除或割除,最終會耗盡其養分儲備,殺死大多數植物。牲畜會啃食其嫩芽,但無法減少大型植株(PIER 2007)。已經有紀錄指出,馬匹攝入大量葉片後會中毒(巴博薩等人, 2006)。

    化學方法:砍除後使用草甘膦或Amitrole 2% ,或滅草煙或草甘膦加fluazifop處理再生的植珠。可以使用Velpar,但它會在殘留在土壤中。不過,據報告,草甘膦不會轉移到根莖(PIER 2007)。

    生命階段
    金絲竹(Bambusa vulgaris)幾乎完全由無性的方式繁殖。極少開花(Quatrocchi 2006)。
    編輯者: Interim compiled by Ben Phalan, Conservation Science Group Department of Zoology University of Cambridge United Kingdom & IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)
    Updates with support from the Overseas Territories Environmental Programme (OTEP) project XOT603, a joint project with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment
    最後修改: Thursday, 10 December 2009


ISSG Landcare Research NBII IUCN University of Auckland