Nom taxonomique: Cecropia peltata L.
Synonymes: Ambaiba pelata Kuntze, Coilotapalus peltata Britton
Noms communs: bois cannon (French), faux ricin (French), guarumo (Spanish), papyrus géant, parasolier (French), pisse-roux (French), pop-a-gun (English), snakewood tree (English), Trompetenbaum (German), trumpet tree (English), trumpet wood (English), yagrumo hembra (Spanish)
Type d'organisme: arbre
Se rencontre dans:
forêts naturelles, plantations forestières, rudéral/perturbé, zones agricoles, zones urbaines
Description de l'habitat
Cecropia peltata typically inhabits forest gaps and disturbed sites (PIER, 2009), such as, along roadsides, agricultural sites, lava flows, and urban locations (Binggeli, 1999). It is a fast growing, high light demanding, pioneer species that colonizes tree fall gaps in ts native range and is capable of establishing dense stands (PIER, 2009). It is known from altitudes of 50-2700 m (Hurtado & Alson, 1995). C. peltata requires much rainfall and may be found in environments with 990 mm to over 3,810 mm of annual percipitation. It grows in alluvial, colluvial, and residual soils neutral to acidic in nature. Soil texture may range from heavy clay to sandy, but a clay-loam soil is optimal. C. peltata is also generally found in warm climates ranging from montane to tropical with mean annual temperatures of 12-24°C (Silander & Lugo, undated).
Cecropia peltata forms dense stands that may compete with or displace native pioneer species and reduce species richness (Bingelli, 1999; Dumont et al, 1990). Evidence suggests it competes with and may displace tropical African pioneer species Musanga cecropioides (Bingelli, 1999).
Cecropia peltata is popularly cultivated as an ornamental species (Bodkin 1990 in Csurhes, 2008).
Cecropia peltata L was distinguished from C. schreberiana Miq. in 1988. Whereas Cecropia peltata occurs in Mexico and Central America, C. schreberiana occurs in the Antilles and northern South America (Howard, 1988; ISTF, 1997 in Brokaw, 1998; Csuhres, 2008). However, ITIS does not distinguish between the species and, in fact, states Cecropia schreberiana as the valid name for the species and indicates C. peltata as a synonym for C. schreberiana.
Cecropia peltata is dioecious and becomes sexually mature in 3 to 5 years. Its tiny flowers are clustered on 5 to 10 cm long spikes and are wind-pollinated. On female spikes the minute one-seeded fruits form large fruit clusters which appear to take around a month to mature. A spike contains around 800 viable seeds which are about 1.9 mm long and weigh 1.6 mg. Bats and birds eat large quantities of the succulent fruits and are the main seed disperser. In Costa Rica a similar amount of fruits are consumed during the day, mainly by monkeys, and at night by bats and arboreal mammals. A large and persistent seedbank is formed in the forest soil (Bingelli, 1999). In some locations flowering and fruiting occur year-round and in others it it seasonal with a peak in either the wet or the dry season depending on location (Silander & Lugo, undated; Bingelli, 1999). C. peltata is highly productive and seed production is estimated to be as high as 1 million seeds per year (Silander & Lugo, undated)
Stades du cycle de vie
Seeds of Cecropia peltata require full sunlight for successful germination and with those conditions may be as high as 80-90%. Seedling leaves are pubescent on both sides, lanceolate, unlobed, and finely toothed. Seedlings are also very light demanding and seedling mortality in natural conditions is typically very high. It has been found that 99% of seedlings in forest openings die in the first year. C. peltata grows rapidly reaching 10-15 cm in height in 10 weeks and up to about 2 m in the first year. Reproductive maturity is reached by pistillate trees in 3-4 years and by staminate trees in 4-5 years. Maturation is dependant on allocation of resources for rapid initial height growth and factors such as the height of and proximity to surrounding vegetation with trees in open environments maturing faster than those in forest gaps. C. peltata usually reaches canopy height in about 10 years and its estimated life span is 30 years (Silander & Lugo, undated).
Cette espèce figure sur la liste de l’UICN des 100 espèces parmi les plus envahissantes au monde
Compilé par: National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII) & IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)
Dernière mise à jour: Wednesday, 23 February 2011