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   Pueraria montana var. lobata (藤本植物,攀援植物)  English  français   
生態 分佈 管理 影響 參考資料 聯繫


      Kudzu vine (Photo: Kazuo Yamasaki) - Click for full size   Young kudzu vines in mid-summer showing hairs (taken in July) (Photo credit: Ted Bodner) - Click for full size   Close-up of older Kudzu vine (taken in November) (Photo credit: James H. Miller) - Click for full size   Kudzu leaves with lobes (taken in October) (Photo credit: James H. Miller) - Click for full size   Kudzu leaves without  lobes (taken in October) (Photo credit: James H. Miller) - Click for full size   Kudzu flowers in mid-summer (taken in July) (Photo credit: Ted Bodner) - Click for full size   Kudzu seeds in late fall showing golden brown hairs (taken in November) (Photo credit: Ted Bodner) - Click for full size   Kudzu infestation in mid-summer overtaking tops (taken in July) (Photo credit: James H. Miller) - Click for full size   Kudzu infestation in spring (taken in April) (Photo credit: James H. Miller) - Click for full size
    學名: Pueraria montana var. lobata (Willd.) Maesen & S. Almeida
    同種異名: Dolichos hirsutus Thunberg, Dolichos lobatus Willd., Pachyrrhizus thunbergianus Siebold & Zuccarini, Pueraria hirsuta (Thunb.) C. Schneider, Pueraria lobata var. thomsonii (Benth.) Maesen, Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi, Pueraria montana (Lour.) Merr. var. lobata (Willd.), Pueraria thunbergiana (Sieb. & Zucc.) Benth.
    俗名: acha, aka (Niuean), aka (Tongan), aka (Wallis and Futuna), aka fala (Niuean), akataha (Tongan), fen ge (Chinese), fen ke (Chinese), foot-a-night vine (English), gan ge (Chinese), gan ge teng (Chinese), Japanese arrowroot (English), Ko-hemp (German), Kopoubohne (German), kudzu (English), kudzu común (Spanish), kudzu vine (English), Kudzu-Kletterwein (German), kuzu (Japanese), nepalem (French), shan ge teng (Chinese), vigne japonaise (French), vine-that-ate-the-South (English), wa yaka, wa yaka (Fijian)
    生物類型: 藤本植物,攀援植物
    葛藤是屬於豆科的半木質藤本,具有蔓延性的纏繞莖會形成濃密族群覆蓋地面或植物體上。報告指出葛藤已入侵美東地區約2-3百萬公頃面積,土地生產力及防除經費每年估計造成50億美元損失。它居住於溫帶,或海拔較高的熱帶地區,幾乎所有的生態類型都適合它,從最乾的矮叢矮林到永久水體的邊緣都可以發現它,但是不長在定期被水淹沒的土壤。
    物種描述
    纏繞性木質藤本,10-30公尺長,由地下1-5公尺深,重達數公斤的半木植塊根長出。葉互生,三出,小葉約8-18公分長,6-20公分寬,常有淺裂。花紅紫色,穗狀總狀花序。扁平莢果,外被褐毛,開裂散出種子,種子卵形被毛。
    出現在:
    人造林, 天然林, 市區, 河岸區, 矮叢/灌木, 範圍 /草原, 農業區, 雜草 /受干擾
    棲息地描述
    The typical natural habitats of kudzu are open lands or shrub lands adjacent to broad-leaved or mixed forests, but it readily invades managed habitats such as road and rail embankments, abandoned pastures, and banks of inland water bodies (EPPO 2007). It colonises a wide variety of natural and semi-natural habitats (EPPO 2007), for example forest edges, disturbed areas or scrub vegetation (van der Maesen 1985 1994 2002; Halim 1992, in Heider et al. 2007). While tropical kudzu (P. phaseoloides) thrives in humid and low altitude habitats, kudzu prefers warm to temperate zones or higher altitudes (van der Maesen 1985 1994 2002; Halim 1992, in Heider et al. 2007). Kudzu thrives in full sun habitats; growth rates and survival are reduced in shaded stands of trees (Abramovitz 1983; Forseth and Teramura 1987, in Forseth and Innis 2004; Carter and Teramura 1988).

    Kudzu grows well with annual precipitation of 1000 to 1500 millimeters on sand or clay soil (Sunet al. 2006). Because of its large roots which act as water reservoirs, kudzu can also withstand fairly dry climates (Shurtleff and Aoyagi 1977, in Mitich 2000; Zhang and Ye 1990, in Sun et al. 2006). It prefers high summer temperatures (over 27°C) and deep, well-drained loamy soils. However the plant is able to survive in frosted and shallow soils even though its roots cannot develop fully (Pron 2006, in EPPO 2007). It is relatively indifferent to soil pH; according to soil analyses the plant can grow in soils with a soil pH from 3 to 8 (EPPO 2007).

    In Japan kudzu ranges in latitude from 44°N to 30°N. It grows abundantly in mountainous areas up to an elevation of 1000 m; it is also found in lowland areas and on many of the small islands. In Korea it grows in areas where the temperature drops to -30°C (Shurtleff and Aoyagi 1977, in Mitich 2000).

    一般影響
    形成密集族群侷限性的大量入侵。
    用途
    Kudzu’s greatest potential today may be the powdery extract derived from the plant's roots used as cooking starch. Kudzu leaves, shoots, and flowers are used in salads, soups, sauteed dishes and casseroles. Kudzu has medicinal properties and has been used for millennia in China and Japan to cure a wide range of common ailments (Shurtleff and Aoyagi 1977. In Japan, young kudzu vines are harvested to provide supple waterproof fibers for weaving sturdy wicker baskets or trunks. The cellulose fiber from large vines and roots is used as the basic raw material for making fine traditional paper. The fiber is also used to stuff cushions, beds, and chairs. When burned, it acts as a mosquito repellent (Shurtleff and Aoyagi 1977, in Mitich 2000). Kudzu has been used to produce an unusually fragrant, flavorful honey. Its leguminous roots host nitrogen-fixing bacteria that enrich the soil (Shurtleff and Aoyagi 1977). Kudzu has also been successfully used in the experimental production of methane and gasohol (Hipps 1994, in Mitich 2000). The main uses of kudzu in the United States have been for erosion control and as a forage crop; while kudzu is still valued as a soil-conserving plant for erosion control on steep slopes and embankments, less invasive species are now available for stabilization purposes (Birdsall and Hough-Goldstein 2004).
    Notes
    Climate Change: Jarnevich and Stohlgren (2009) examined how the potential distribution of kudzu will be affected by changing climate and created habitat suitability models that indicate that P. montana may increase its distribution particularly in the Northeast United States with climate change and may decrease in other areas. Predictions of global warming include increases of 3°C to 5°C in mean global temperatures (IPCC 2001, in Forseth and Innis 2004). These trends should favor the spread of P. montana (Forseth and Innis 2004). Kudzu has recently showed northward and westward migration patterns in the United States that correlate with warmer winters and higher CO² levels (Ziska et al. 2009).

    Related Species: P. montana var. lobata is the variety that has been introduced into the United States and South America. The range of this variety overlaps with that of P. montana var. montana in China south of the Yangtze River to Hong Kong. The distribution of P. montana var. montana also includes Vietnam, Burma, Laos and Thailand. In these countries, and in southern China, P. montana var. montana shares its distribution with P. montana var. thomsoni and and P. montana var. chinensis. Specimens from northeast India were identified as P. montana var. thomsoni (van der Maesen 1985, in Britton et al. 2002).

    This profile pertains to Pueraria montana var. lobata. Characteristics that had been used previously to differentiate P. montana from P. lobata and Pueraria thomsoni (Benth.) are lobed leaflets, and the size of wing and keel petals, all of which can be quite variable. For information on the taxonomy of P. montana please see Ward (1998).

    地理分佈
    原生地:原生於亞洲。
    已知引進地區Pueraria montana居住於溫帶或者熱帶高海拔地區,被發現於幾乎所有生態類型中,從最乾的矮叢到永久水體的邊緣,但是不在定期被水淹沒的土壤中。
    管理資訊
    在種下松樹和牧草後,重複的除草劑治療和過度放牧,一直是最常用且成功的控制方法。

    預防措施針對澳洲葛藤(Pueraria montana var. lobata)的瀕危風險評估,使用澳洲風險評估系統,執行者是太平洋島嶼瀕危生態系統[PIER].(Pheloung, 1995), 結果是 9 分,建議如下:拒絕此植物進口(澳洲)或此植物可能是有害植物(太平洋)。

    物理方法:移除之前應先推土。

    生物方法:正與中國合作初步發展傳統的生物控制方法,中國是掠食昆蟲的原生地。正在研究發展,使用本地昆蟲和病原體進行生物控制。

    營養
    被發現於是在一個各類型的土壤類型中有小的到沒有特別的營養需求,除了它不會以外生長在定期被水淹沒的土壤。
    繁殖
    種子生育力低,9至10月成熟,宿存於植物體至隔年1月。一年結實一次。
    生命階段
    Seedlings develop a woody root crown, with multiple runners and extensive tuberous roots (Britton et al. 2002).
    這個物種被列為世界百大入侵種
    校訂者:: Dr. James H. Miller, USDA Forest Service, Southern Research Station, Auburn, AL 36849 USA.
    編輯者: Profile revision: National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII) & IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)
    最後修改: Monday, 22 March 2010


ISSG Landcare Research NBII IUCN University of Auckland