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   Salmo trutta (魚類)  English  français   
生態 分佈 管理 影響 參考資料 聯繫


      Salmo trutta  (Photo: Wikimedia Commons, Eric Engbretson for U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service) - Click for full size   Salmo trutta  (Photo: Wikimedia Commons) - Click for full size   Salmo trutta (Photo: Dave Fuller, Montana Fish, Parks and Wildlife, USA) - Click for full size   Salmo trutta (Photo: Noel M. Burkhead) - Click for full size   Salmo trutta (Photo: SAREP) - Click for full size
    學名: Salmo trutta Linnaeus, 1758
    同種異名: Fario argenteus Valenciennes, 1848, Salar ausonii parcepunctata Heckel & Kner, 1858, Salar ausonii semipunctata Heckel & Kner, 1858, Salar ausonii Valenciennes, 1848, Salar bailloni Valenciennes, 1848, Salar gaimardi Valenciennes, 1848, Salar spectabilis Valenciennes, 1848, Salmo albus Bonnaterre, 1788, Salmo albus Walbaum, 1792, Salmo brachypoma Günther, 1866, Salmo caecifer Parnell, 1838, Salmo cambricus Donovan, 1806, Salmo caspius Kessler, 1877, Salmo cornubiensis Walbaum, 1792, Salmo cumberland Lacepède, 1803, Salmo eriox Linnaeus, 1758, Salmo fario loensis Walbaum, 1792, Salmo fario major Walecki, 1863, Salmo gadoides Lacepède, 1803, Salmo gallivensis Günther, 1866, Salmo islayensis Thomson, 1873, Salmo lacustris septentrionalis Fatio, 1890, Salmo levenensis Yarrell, 1839, Salmo mistops Günther, 1866 , Salmo montana Walker, 1812, Salmo orcadensis Günther, 1866, Salmo orientalis McClelland, 1842, Salmo phinoc Shaw, 1804, Salmo polyosteus Günther, 1866, Salmo saxatilis Paula Schrank, 1798, Salmo spurius Pallas, 1814, Salmo stroemii Gmelin, 1788, Salmo sylvaticus Gmelin, 1788, Salmo taurinus Walker, 1812, Salmo trutta abanticus Tortonese, 1954, Salmo trutta ciscaucasicus Dorofeyeva, 1967, Salmo trutta ezenami (non Berg, 1948), Salmo trutta trutta Linnaeus, 1761, Salmo trutta Linnaeus, 1759, Trutta fluviatilis Duhamel, 1771, Trutta marina Duhamel, 1771, Trutta marina Moreau, 1881, Trutta salmanata Ström, 1784, Trutta salmonata Rutty, 1772
    俗名: an breac geal (Gaelic, Irish), aure (Norwegian), bachforelle (German), blacktail (English), breac geal (Gaelic, Irish), brook trout (English), brown trout (English), denizalabaligi (Turkish), denizalasi (Turkish), Europäische Forelle (German), finnock (English), forelle (German), galway sea trout (English), gillaroo (English), gwyniedyn (Welsh), havørred (Danish), havsöring (Swedish), herling (English), hirling (English), kumzha (Russian), k'wsech (Salish), lachförch (German), lachsforelle (German), lassföhren (German), losos taimen (Russian-Latvia), losos' taimen (Russian), mahiazad-e-daryaye khazar (Farsi), meerforelle (German), meritaimen (Finnish), morska postrv (Slovenia), morskaya forel' (Russian), orange fin (English), öring (Swedish), orkney sea trout (English), ørred (Danish), ørret (Norwegian), pastrav de mare (Romanian), peal (English), pstruh morsky (Czech), pstruh obecný (Czech), pstruh obecný severomorský (Czech), pstruh obycajný (Slovak), salmo trota (Italian), salmon trout (English), sea trout (English), sewin (English), siwin (Welsh), sjøaure (Norwegian), sjøørret (Norwegian), sjourrioi (Icelandic), taimen (Finnish), thalasopestrofa (Greek), troc (Polish), troc wedrowna (Polish), trota fario (Italian), trout (English), trucha (Spanish), trucha común (Spanish), trucha marina (Spanish), truita (Catalan), truite brune (French), truite brune de mer (French), truite de mer (French), truite d'europe (French), truta marisca (Portuguese), truta-de-lago (Portuguese), truta-fário (Portuguese), truta-marisca (Portuguese), urriði (Icelandic), whiting (English), whitling (English), zeeforel (Dutch)
    生物類型: 魚類
    鱒魚(Salmo trutta)藉由水產業引進並散佈至全球,養殖作為遊釣漁業用。牠會極度地降低當地原生的魚類族群,尤其是掠食或取代其他鮭魚類及食物競爭。他們是相當普遍的垂釣魚種。
    物種描述
    褐鱒魚因身體上褐色以及金褐色被命名。某些有其他特徵:側面為銀色或是黃色、腹部是白色或淡黃色; 環繞有灰白色暈圈的黑色斑點,在背部以及側面可大量看到; 這些斑點也可以在頭部以及沿著背部的鰭上發現; 繡紅色的斑點一樣可以在側面發現到; 尾部前小的附有脂肪的鰭帶有淡紅色的色彩; 海洋中巡遊的鱒魚有著較多的銀色以及較少的斑點。
    褐鱒魚與大西洋鮭魚、彩虹鱒非常相似,但鮭魚帶有脂肪的鰭並非呈現紅色,彩虹鱒尾部則有黑色斑點排列。幼小的鱒魚於一側有九到十四個暗小的幼鱒記號,某些則是沿著側線有紅色斑點。
    褐鱒魚可以成長到相當大,尤其是在海中巡遊的鱒魚。魚重量在歐洲曾被記錄到達到三十一公斤(六十八磅)(Fisheries & Oceans Canada, 2004)。野生鱒魚達到九公斤(二十磅)。
    相似物種
    Salmo salar

    More
    出現在:
    水道, 河口棲息地, 海洋棲息地, 湖泊
    棲息地描述
    褐鱒主要是生活在淡水的區域,但其會花時間生活在海洋中,牠們躲藏在充滿雜草及岩石的淺水區域、卵石散佈的區域,並傾向待在水溫十八至二十三度處(華氏六十五至七十五度)。雖然牠們對於溫度的耐受度低於彩虹鱒,鱒魚仍然喜歡選擇在冷而且充滿氧氣的高山水域中。(FishBase, 2003)
    一般影響
    褐鱒經由捕食、換置與食物競爭減少原生魚類族群(尤其是其他鮭魚)。(Taylor et al. 1984, in Fuller, 1999). 雖然它很少出現在美國,褐色鱒魚是少數能與原生魚種雜交的外來種。(Fuller 1999)
    用途
    漁業:水產養殖:休閒垂釣、水族養殖。市場上新鮮或燻製銷售; 油炸後食用,火烤的, 煮沸,在微波爐中煮, 與燒烤.(FishBase, 2003)
    Notes
    主要日行性,.(FishBase, 2003)
    地理分佈
    原生地:歐洲、非洲北部與亞洲西部.(Page and Burr 1991, in Fuller, 1999)
    已知引進地區:北美洲與南美洲、英國、歐洲、俄國、中東、澳洲、紐西蘭、北非、南非、整個亞洲、夏威夷與斐濟。
    管理資訊
    Preventative measures: The use of potentially invasive alien species for aquaculture and their accidental release/or escape can have negative impacts on native biodiversity and ecosystems. Hewitt et al, (2006) Alien Species in Aquaculture: Considerations for responsible use aims to first provide decision makers and managers with information on the existing international and regional regulations that address the use of alien species in aquaculture, either directly or indirectly; and three examples of national responses to this issue (Australia, New Zealand and Chile). The publication also provides recommendations for a ‘simple’ set of guidelines and principles for developing countries that can be applied at a regional or domestic level for the responsible management of Alien Species use in aquaculture development. These guidelines focus primarily on marine systems, however may equally be applied to freshwater.

    Copp et al, (2005) Risk identification and assessment of non-native freshwater fishes presents a conceptual risk assessment approach for freshwater fish species that addresses the first two elements (hazard identification, hazard assessment) of the UK environmental risk strategy. The paper presents a few worked examples of assessments on species to facilitate discussion. The electronic Decision-support tools- Invasive-species identification tool kits that includes a freshwater and marine fish invasives scoring kit are made available on the Cefas (Centre for Environment, Fisheries & Aquaculture Science) page for free download (subject to Crown Copyright (2007-2008)).

    營養
    以水生動物以及陸生昆蟲、軟體動物、甲殼綱動物、小的魚類為食。(FishBase, 2003)
    繁殖
    約三到四年成熟。繁殖在河域中。雌性一次產卵約一萬顆。(Fishbase, 2003)。
    生命階段
    生活史以及產卵的行為相似於鮭魚(Fishbase, 2003)產卵於較淺的淡水中( Kroon, F. pers. comm, Jan 2004)雌性鱒魚以靜止不動的沙以及細小的碎石覆蓋卵。孵化至十二公厘後,鱒魚幼體仍在碎石中停留二到三週直到牠們約二十五公分長,此時牠們開始在水域中尋找食物。鱒魚是有領域性的且幼年時期即開始建立領域 鮭魚幼苗用生命期的頭兩年由湖邊族群移至其原生湖泊區域。.(FishBase, 2003)鱒魚幼苗也遷移至海洋或停留在淡水中( Kroon, F. pers. comm, Jan 2004)。
    這個物種被列為世界百大入侵種
    校訂者:: Dr. Frederieke Kroon, Research Scientist. CSIRO Land and Water Long Pocket Laboratories, Indooroopilly, QLD Australia.
    編輯者: National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII) & IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)
    Updates with support from the Overseas Territories Environmental Programme (OTEP) project XOT603, a joint project with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment
    最後修改: Monday, 4 October 2010


ISSG Landcare Research NBII IUCN University of Auckland