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   Salmo trutta (鱼类)  English  français   
生态 分布 管理 影响 参考数据 联系


      Salmo trutta  (Photo: Wikimedia Commons, Eric Engbretson for U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service) - Click for full size   Salmo trutta  (Photo: Wikimedia Commons) - Click for full size   Salmo trutta (Photo: Dave Fuller, Montana Fish, Parks and Wildlife, USA) - Click for full size   Salmo trutta (Photo: Noel M. Burkhead) - Click for full size   Salmo trutta (Photo: SAREP) - Click for full size
    学名: Salmo trutta Linnaeus, 1758
    同种异名: Fario argenteus Valenciennes, 1848, Salar ausonii parcepunctata Heckel & Kner, 1858, Salar ausonii semipunctata Heckel & Kner, 1858, Salar ausonii Valenciennes, 1848, Salar bailloni Valenciennes, 1848, Salar gaimardi Valenciennes, 1848, Salar spectabilis Valenciennes, 1848, Salmo albus Bonnaterre, 1788, Salmo albus Walbaum, 1792, Salmo brachypoma Günther, 1866, Salmo caecifer Parnell, 1838, Salmo cambricus Donovan, 1806, Salmo caspius Kessler, 1877, Salmo cornubiensis Walbaum, 1792, Salmo cumberland Lacepède, 1803, Salmo eriox Linnaeus, 1758, Salmo fario loensis Walbaum, 1792, Salmo fario major Walecki, 1863, Salmo gadoides Lacepède, 1803, Salmo gallivensis Günther, 1866, Salmo islayensis Thomson, 1873, Salmo lacustris septentrionalis Fatio, 1890, Salmo levenensis Yarrell, 1839, Salmo mistops Günther, 1866 , Salmo montana Walker, 1812, Salmo orcadensis Günther, 1866, Salmo orientalis McClelland, 1842, Salmo phinoc Shaw, 1804, Salmo polyosteus Günther, 1866, Salmo saxatilis Paula Schrank, 1798, Salmo spurius Pallas, 1814, Salmo stroemii Gmelin, 1788, Salmo sylvaticus Gmelin, 1788, Salmo taurinus Walker, 1812, Salmo trutta abanticus Tortonese, 1954, Salmo trutta ciscaucasicus Dorofeyeva, 1967, Salmo trutta ezenami (non Berg, 1948), Salmo trutta trutta Linnaeus, 1761, Salmo trutta Linnaeus, 1759, Trutta fluviatilis Duhamel, 1771, Trutta marina Duhamel, 1771, Trutta marina Moreau, 1881, Trutta salmanata Ström, 1784, Trutta salmonata Rutty, 1772
    俗名: an breac geal (Gaelic, Irish), aure (Norwegian), bachforelle (German), blacktail (English), breac geal (Gaelic, Irish), brook trout (English), brown trout (English), denizalabaligi (Turkish), denizalasi (Turkish), Europäische Forelle (German), finnock (English), forelle (German), galway sea trout (English), gillaroo (English), gwyniedyn (Welsh), havørred (Danish), havsöring (Swedish), herling (English), hirling (English), kumzha (Russian), k'wsech (Salish), lachförch (German), lachsforelle (German), lassföhren (German), losos taimen (Russian-Latvia), losos' taimen (Russian), mahiazad-e-daryaye khazar (Farsi), meerforelle (German), meritaimen (Finnish), morska postrv (Slovenia), morskaya forel' (Russian), orange fin (English), öring (Swedish), orkney sea trout (English), ørred (Danish), ørret (Norwegian), pastrav de mare (Romanian), peal (English), pstruh morsky (Czech), pstruh obecný (Czech), pstruh obecný severomorský (Czech), pstruh obycajný (Slovak), salmo trota (Italian), salmon trout (English), sea trout (English), sewin (English), siwin (Welsh), sjøaure (Norwegian), sjøørret (Norwegian), sjourrioi (Icelandic), taimen (Finnish), thalasopestrofa (Greek), troc (Polish), troc wedrowna (Polish), trota fario (Italian), trout (English), trucha (Spanish), trucha común (Spanish), trucha marina (Spanish), truita (Catalan), truite brune (French), truite brune de mer (French), truite de mer (French), truite d'europe (French), truta marisca (Portuguese), truta-de-lago (Portuguese), truta-fário (Portuguese), truta-marisca (Portuguese), urriði (Icelandic), whiting (English), whitling (English), zeeforel (Dutch)
    生物类型: 鱼类
    鳟鱼(Salmo trutta)藉由水产业引进并散布至全球,养殖作为游钓渔业用。牠会极度地降低当地原生的鱼类族群,尤其是掠食或取代其它鲑鱼类及食物竞争。他们是相当普遍的垂钓鱼种。
    物种描述
    褐鳟鱼因身体上褐色以及金褐色被命名。某些有其它特征:侧面为银色或是黄色、腹部是白色或淡黄色; 环绕有灰白色晕圈的黑色斑点,在背部以及侧面可大量看到; 这些斑点也可以在头部以及沿着背部的鳍上发现; 绣红色的斑点一样可以在侧面发现到; 尾部前小的附有脂肪的鳍带有淡红色的色彩; 海洋中巡游的鳟鱼有着较多的银色以及较少的斑点。
    褐鳟鱼与大西洋鲑鱼、彩虹鳟非常相似,但鲑鱼带有脂肪的鳍并非呈现红色,彩虹鳟尾部则有黑色斑点排列。幼小的鳟鱼于一侧有九到十四个暗小的幼鳟记号,某些则是沿着侧线有红色斑点。
    褐鳟鱼可以成长到相当大,尤其是在海中巡游的鳟鱼。鱼重量在欧洲曾被记录到达到三十一公斤(六十八磅)(Fisheries & Oceans Canada, 2004)。野生鳟鱼达到九公斤(二十磅)。
    相似物种
    Salmo salar

    More
    出现在:
    水道, 河口栖息地, 海洋栖息地, 湖泊
    栖息地描述
    褐鳟主要是生活在淡水的区域,但其会花时间生活在海洋中,牠们躲藏在充满杂草及岩石的浅水区域、卵石散布的区域,并倾向待在水温十八至二十三度处(华氏六十五至七十五度)。虽然牠们对于温度的耐受度低于彩虹鳟,鳟鱼仍然喜欢选择在冷而且充满氧气的高山水域中。(FishBase, 2003)
    一般影响
    褐鳟经由捕食、换置与食物竞争减少原生鱼类族群 (尤其是其它鲑鱼)。(Taylor et al. 1984, in Fuller, 1999). 虽然它很少出现在美国,褐色鳟鱼是少数能与原生鱼种杂交的外来种。(Fuller 1999)
    用途
    渔业:水产养殖:休闲垂钓、水族养殖。市场上新鲜或熏制销售; 油炸后食用,火烤的, 煮沸,在微波炉中煮, 与烧烤.(FishBase, 2003)
    Notes
    主要日行性,.(FishBase, 2003)
    地理分布
    原生地:欧洲、非洲北部与亚洲西部.(Page and Burr 1991, in Fuller, 1999)
    已知引进地区:北美洲与南美洲、英国、欧洲、俄国、中东、澳洲、纽西兰、北非、南非、整个亚洲、夏威夷与斐济。
    管理信息
    Preventative measures: The use of potentially invasive alien species for aquaculture and their accidental release/or escape can have negative impacts on native biodiversity and ecosystems. Hewitt et al, (2006) Alien Species in Aquaculture: Considerations for responsible use aims to first provide decision makers and managers with information on the existing international and regional regulations that address the use of alien species in aquaculture, either directly or indirectly; and three examples of national responses to this issue (Australia, New Zealand and Chile). The publication also provides recommendations for a ‘simple’ set of guidelines and principles for developing countries that can be applied at a regional or domestic level for the responsible management of Alien Species use in aquaculture development. These guidelines focus primarily on marine systems, however may equally be applied to freshwater.

    Copp et al, (2005) Risk identification and assessment of non-native freshwater fishes presents a conceptual risk assessment approach for freshwater fish species that addresses the first two elements (hazard identification, hazard assessment) of the UK environmental risk strategy. The paper presents a few worked examples of assessments on species to facilitate discussion. The electronic Decision-support tools- Invasive-species identification tool kits that includes a freshwater and marine fish invasives scoring kit are made available on the Cefas (Centre for Environment, Fisheries & Aquaculture Science) page for free download (subject to Crown Copyright (2007-2008)).

    营养
    以水生动物以及陆生昆虫、软件动物、甲壳纲动物、小的鱼类为食。(FishBase, 2003)
    繁殖
    约三到四年成熟。繁殖在河域中。雌性一次产卵约一万颗。(Fishbase, 2003)。
    生命阶段
    生活史以及产卵的行为相似于鲑鱼(Fishbase, 2003) 产卵于较浅的淡水中( Kroon, F. pers. comm, Jan 2004) 雌性鳟鱼以静止不动的沙以及细小的碎石覆盖卵。孵化至十二公厘后,鳟鱼幼体仍在碎石中停留二到三周直到牠们约二十五公分长,此时牠们开始在水域中寻找食物。鳟鱼是有领域性的且幼年时期即开始建立领域 鲑鱼幼苗用生命期的头两年由湖边族群移至其原生湖泊区域。.(FishBase, 2003) 鳟鱼幼苗也迁移至海洋或停留在淡水中( Kroon, F. pers. comm, Jan 2004)。
    这个物种被列为世界百大入侵种
    校订者:: Dr. Frederieke Kroon, Research Scientist. CSIRO Land and Water Long Pocket Laboratories, Indooroopilly, QLD Australia.
    编辑者: National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII) & IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)
    Updates with support from the Overseas Territories Environmental Programme (OTEP) project XOT603, a joint project with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment
    最后修改: Monday, 4 October 2010


ISSG Landcare Research NBII IUCN University of Auckland