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   Cyprinus carpio (魚類)  English  français   
生態 分佈 管理 影響 參考資料 聯繫


      Cyprinus carpio - Click for full size   Common carp (Photo: Konrad Schmidt, General College and James Ford Bell Museum of Natural History, University of Minnesota) - Click for full size   Painting of Cyprinus carpio  (Image: USFWS National Image Library) - Click for full size   "Mirror" form of common carp (Photo: Konrad Schmidt, General College and James Ford Bell Museum of Natural History, University of Minnesota) - Click for full size
    學名: Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus 1758
    同種異名: Carpio carpio gibbosus (Kessler, 1856), Carpio flavipinna Valenciennes, 1842, Carpio vulgaris Rapp, 1854, Cyprinus acuminatus Heckel & Kner, 1858, Cyprinus acuminatus Richardson, 1846, Cyprinus angulatus Heckel, 1843, Cyprinus atrovirens Richardson, 1846, Cyprinus bithynicus Richardson, 1857, Cyprinus carpio anatolicus Hanko, 1924, Cyprinus carpio aralensis Spiczakow, 1935, Cyprinus carpio brevicirri Misik, 1958, Cyprinus carpio elongatus Walecki, 1863, Cyprinus carpio fluviatilis Pravdin, 1945, Cyprinus carpio longicirri Misik, 1958, Cyprinus carpio monstrosus Walecki, 1863, Cyprinus carpio oblongus Antipa, 1909, Cyprinus chinensis Basilewsky, 1855, Cyprinus conirostris Temminck & Schlegel, 1846, Cyprinus festetitsii Bonaparte, 1845, Cyprinus flamm Richardson, 1846, Cyprinus fossicola Richardson, 1846, Cyprinus haematopterus Temminck & Schlegel, 1846, Cyprinus melanotus Temminck & Schlegel, 1846, Cyprinus nordmannii Valenciennes, 1842, Cyprinus sculponeatus Richardson, 1846, Cyprinus thermalis Heckel, 1843, Cyprinus tossicole Elera, 1895, Cyprinus vittatus Valenciennes, 1842
    俗名: Cá Chép (Vietnam), carp (English), carpa (Spanish), carpat (French-France), carpe (French-Switzerland), carpe (French-Canada), carpe commune (French-France), carpeau (French-France), carpo (French-France), cerpyn (Welsh), ciortan (Romanian), ciortanica (Romanian), ciortocrap (Romanian), ciuciulean (Romanian), common carp (English), crapcean (Romanian), cyprinos (Greek), escarpo (French-France), Europäischer Karpfen (German), European carp (English), fancy carp, feral carp (Australia), German carp (English), grass carp (English-Russian Federation), grivadi (Greek), ikan mas (Malay-Indonesia), Japanese domesticated carp, kapoor-e-maamoli (Farsi), kapor (Slovak), kapr obecný (Czech), karp (Afrikaans), karp (Polish), karp (Russian), karp (Swedish), karp (Ukrainian), karp dziki a. sazan (Polish), karpa (Tagalog-Philippines), karpar (Icelandic), karpe (Danish), Karpe (Norwegian), karpen (German), karper (Dutch), karpfen (German), karpion (Hebrew), karppi (Finnish), kerpaille (French), king carp, koi (English), koi carp (English), korop (Ukrainian), krapi (Albanian), kyprinos (Greek), læderkarpe (Danish), lauk mas (Malay), leather carp (English), leekoh (Malay), lei ue (Cantonese-Hong Kong), mas massan (Malay), mirror carp (English), olocari (Romanian), Oriental carp (Australia), pa nai (Lao), pba ni (Lao), pla nai (Thai), ponty (Hungarian), punjabe gad (Kashmiri-India), rata pethiya (Sinhalese), saran (Romanian), Saran (Serbian), sarmão (Portuguese), sazan (Russian), sazan baligi (Turkish), scale carp (English), sharan (Bulgarian), skælkarpe (Danish), soneri masha (Marathi), spejlkarpe (Danish), sulari (Romanian), suloi (Romanian), tikure (Amharic-Ethiopia), trey carp samahn (Khmer), trey kap (Khmer), ulucari (Romanian), weißfische (German), wild carp (English), wildkarpfen (German)
    生物類型: 魚類
    鯉魚被當作食用與觀賞魚種而引入全球各地的溫帶淡水域。鯉魚因為牠們的數量多以及會減低水域的清澈度、破壞與拔除被許多水生物種當作棲地的水生植物的特性,使得牠們被視為是有害的動物。
    物種描述
    鯉魚(Cyprinus carpio)曾有紀錄可長至1公尺長,約40公斤重。在澳洲,此物種可長到10公斤重,但4到5公斤重較為普遍(Australian Museum Online, 2003)。 鯉魚可由牠們的小眼睛、於兩嘴角具有兩條觸鬚的厚唇、大的魚鱗,和背鰭與臀鰭上堅硬的鋸齒狀棘刺來加以辨識。顏色多變,但通常背部為橄欖綠色到銀綠色,腹部漸漸轉為銀黃色。
    在自然的環境下,成魚可達到 1220 mm TL,鯉魚可活到15歲,也有紀錄顯示有些個體可活到24歲(Gromov, 1979; Balon, 1995)。已知雄魚可以活得比雌魚久(Balon, 1995)。
    (Aguirre 與 Poss, 2000)背棘(總數):3-4; 背的軟鰭條(總數):17-23; 臀棘:2-3; 肛門的軟鰭條:5-6; 脊椎骨 :36-37. 咽齒發達、類似臼齒,齒冠平坦或些微起伏。鱗片大且厚。野生鯉魚通常可藉由較短胖的體型區分出來,其體長與標準體長的比例為1:3.2到1:4.8。在外型、比例、魚鱗的排列、鰭的發育、顏色上,都有很大的變異。尾鰭 3 脊椎與 17-19個鰭條。尾鰭具有3根棘刺與17到19根鰭條。最後一根單一的臀鰭鰭條骨化,且在後端呈鋸齒狀; 4個觸鬚; 17-20個分枝的背鰭條; 身體灰色至古銅色。(FishBase, 2003)
    相似物種
    Carassius auratus, Ctenopharyngodon idella, Cyprinidae

    More
    出現在:
    水道, 河口棲息地, 沼澤地, 湖泊
    棲息地描述
    Trautman(1981)發現在含有污穢物,或從農耕地溢出的物質較多的溪流,鯉魚的數量最豐富,但是在清澈的冷水或是坡度較陡的溪流中,很少或無法發現鯉魚分布(Nico, 1999)。底棲性; 非迴游性; 淡水的; 鹹淡水; 酸鹼質範圍:7.0-7.5; dH 範圍:10.0-15.0, 溫和的; 3-32 °C; 60 °N-40° N,.(FishBase, 2003)鯉魚偏好不流動的水體,也偏好含沙且流速慢或貝殼聚集具泥沙底質的水體。
    一般影響
    鯉魚的覓食習慣常會激起底質,會嚴重增加水的渾濁度(NIWA, 2003)。這會使得水域不再具有吸引力,減少了水生植物的豐富度,也可能使得水變成不適合家畜游泳或飲用(NIWA, 2003)。在某些地方,牠們已對河道造成嚴重的傷害,以致必須花費大量的金錢與人力去試著根除牠們。不幸的是,大部分的努力是不成功的(NIWA, 2003)。
    這樣的覓食行為也破壞了提供棲地給原生魚類、提供食物給水禽的著根水生植物(Dentler 1993)。「McCarraher和Gregory(1970)寫到,在1894年有文獻記載,斷線日鱸(Archoplites interruptus)因為鯉魚破壞了牠們的產卵地而變得較稀少。」(Nico, 1999)。實驗顯示鯉魚藉著激起水底沈積物,增加了水的濁度,導致大型植物因為水的清澈度降低與被連根拔起而減少了覆蓋度,也導致原固定於水底沈積物與水生大型植物內的磷被釋出。牠們也藉著掠食與破壞棲地,而降低了大型無脊椎動物的豐富度(Parkos&Wahl, 2000)。
    Bellrichard(1996)發現到大型植物生物量的改變,是由於鯉魚的直接影響。在他們的文獻的檢討中, 理查森 et al.(1995)認為鯉魚因為對生物系統的負面影響而惡名昭彰,包括造成其他魚類及鳥類所利用的生殖棲地的破壞。
    用途
    鯉魚在牠們原生地與被引入的區域,常被養殖以供食用的高商業價值之魚種(Aguirre and Poss, 2000)。
    Notes
    Hartelet al.(1996)記錄到,1970年代晚期,在梅里梅克河(Merrimack River)中,短時間內有超過2萬隻鯉魚因為細菌性疾病而死亡(Nico, 1999)。
    藉著減少沈水植物和降低水的清澈度,鯉魚製造了一個其他魚種,尤其是大型掠食性魚種難以生存的環境。有減少掠食者補充的潛力,再加上高生產力、快速的成長率、寬廣的生理適應性,以及雜食性,造成鯉魚有能力擴散至幾乎任何一個水生棲地(Parkos & Wahl, 2000)。
    在實驗狀況下,幼魚的覓食速率與成長率,在較高鹽度的環境中會降低。(Wang, et al., 1997)然而,據報告它已經適應原產地的半鹹淡水域(Kuliyev 與 Agayarova, 1984)(Aguirre 與 Poss, 2000)。
    鯉魚(Cyprinus carpio)已經被引進超過 140個國家,其中的 18 個報告不利的生態衝擊,.(Casal,pers.comm., 三月 72003 日)鯉魚非常善於游泳,能跳過高達1公尺的障礙物與急流。(參考文獻 2906, 在 FishBase, 2003)鯉魚一般形成小群魚群,然而較大的鯉魚常會單獨出現。(Smith, 1991. 在 Chumchal, 2002)
    地理分佈
    原生地:被可能是的普遍鯉魚(鯉魚(Cyprinus carpio))原產於亞洲,
    已知引進地區:經過許多世紀廣泛引入許多國家,已無法確定其精確的原生地。(NIWA, 2003)在受人類影響之前,鯉魚被發現於黑海、里海與鹹海流域,向東方進入西伯利亞與中國之內與向西遠達多瑙河.(Balon, 1995. 在 Aguirre 與 Poss, 2000)它被引入作為一個食用魚與觀賞魚,進入世界各地溫帶淡水之內。( Aguirre 與 Poss, 2000)今天它生存在除了南極洲以外的各個大陸。(NIWA, 2003)
    管理資訊
    有關鯉魚可能對原生的魚種與水禽造成之傷害,已經促使人們嘗試使用水平面控制、毒藥、圍網、電魚、垂釣和圍欄等方式進行移除(Parkos & Wahl, 2000)。然而鯉魚可以在開放的系統中快速地重新建立族群,使得移除計畫成為一件耗費金錢、人力,且不能間斷的過程(Parkos & Wahl, 2000)。一旦在一個水體中建立族群,要將鯉魚移除是困難且昂貴的工作(例如Cahoon 1953. in Nico, 1999)。「為了成功,防治方法需要具有成本效益,並且對其他魚種造成最少的影響(Bonneau 199)。選擇方法時,其他應考慮的因素包括水體、水溫與水質、公眾意見、水權與環境考量。。管理資料 詳細資料。
    營養
    Adult common carp are benthivores, feeding in sediments to a depth of about 12 centimeters by sucking up mud from the bottom, ejecting it and selectively consuming items while they are suspended; the feeding galleries of carp are easily recognised in shallow waters as depressions in the sediment (Chumchal 2002; Driver et al. 2005; Saikia & Das 2009). Common carp are omnivores; their diet therefore varies between locations and from season to season, depending on food availability (Lammens and Hoogenboezem 1991, in Koehn Brumley & Gehrke 2000). In one study microcrustaceans, for example, were common in the water and diet in spring and summer; molluscs were only eaten when they were available in large numbers; aquarium experiments indicate that chironomids are a preferred food item(Hume et al 1983a, in Koehn Brumley & Gehrke 2000). Hume and colleagues (1983a in Koehn Brumley & Gehrke 2000) found that carp in aquaria preferred to feed on chironomids, and only ate plant material such as pieces of plant tissue, seeds and filamentous green algae in the absence of chironomids. Shifting to a planktivorous diet may occur if zooplankton is limited (Saikia & Das 2009). Rieradevall (1991, in Saikia & Das 2009) also observed a shift of feed items of common carp to amphipod and phantom ridge larvae from chironomids and molluscs due to their higher availability in lake systems. This plasticity in diet may account for some of the invasiveness of common carp. Introduced carp may feed upon food resources previously unexploited by the native fish community (Britton et al. 2007); the common carp’s specialist feeding mechanism of sieving through the substrate allows them take advantage of potentially under-utilised resources, including detritus at a base level of the food chain (Koehn 2004).
    In studies, common carp were shown to feed mainly on algae and zooplankton as juveniles (<150 mm), on benthic insects, macroinvertebrates (e.g. chrionomids) and detritus as young fish (150mm to <400mm) and on the occasional extra plant matter as adults (400mm+) (Hume et al. 1983b, in Koehn Brumley & Gehrke 2000). The larvae of C. carpio forage on planktonic organisms, specifically zooplankton taxa (e.g. Arcella, Diflugia, Colurella, Bosminopsis, Bosmina, small rotifers (Lecane and Monostyla), copepods, diatoms (e.g. Bacillariophyceae) algae (e.g. Chlorophyceae) and Cyanobacteria (HHRI 1976, Li et al. 1995, in Jia et al. 2008; Saikia & Das 2009). Young common carp feed on a variety of macro-invertebrates including, aquatic insect larvae (chironomids, corixids/water boatman, caddis fly larvae), copepods, cladocerans, molluscs (e.g. snails), ostracods, microcrustaceans, tubificids, zooplankton and zooperiphyton (Sigler 1958, Matlak & Matlak 1976, Zur & Sarig 1980, Hume et al. 1983a, in Koehn Brumley & Gehrke 2000; Sibbing 1988, in Saikia & Das 2009). Adult common carp are known to eat a wide variety of organisms including, insects (e.g. beetles), crustaceans (cladocerans, copepods, ostracods, decapods) (Crivelli 1981, Vilizzi 1998, in Koehn Brumley & Gehrke 2000), annelids, mollusks, fish eggs, fish remains, aquatic plants and seeds. Seeds contain carbohydrates and carp feeding on seeds may be preferentially seeking carbohydrate-rich high-energy food (Koehn Brumley & Gehrke 2000). In studies, benthic insects are consistently important dietary items both in wild and cultured carp (USA: Sigler 1958; USSR: Guziur and Weilgosz 1975; Israel: Kugler and Chen 1968; Zur and Sarig 1980; Indonesia: Vaas and Vaas Van Oven 1959, in Koehn Brumley & Gehrke 2000). Common carp are also known to feed on the soft exposed roots of Typha latifolia and Chara aspera (Miller 2004, in Miller & Provenza 2007).
    繁殖
    產卵需要較溫暖的水。在鯉魚的自然分布區域,Balon(1995)記錄到17 °C是產卵的最低溫限制。Osipova(1979)紀錄到野生鯉魚在庫拜索夫水庫(Kubyshev Reservoir)於15 °C的狀況下產卵。在鯉魚部分原生環境,牠們最早可在出生後第一年底達到性成熟(Kuliyev & Agayarova, 1984)。根據Balon(1995)的說法,野生鯉魚是多次產卵的魚種,會產卵2次或3次,其中間隔14天。在產卵前由一隻雌魚與多隻雄魚所組成的交配群(Mating groups)會活潑地游動。卵的直徑大小從1.24公釐到1.42公釐之間,顏色為黃綠色(Moroz, 1968; Linhart et al. 1995)。(Aguirre 與 Poss, 2000)鯉魚的相對生產力為每公斤產10萬到30萬顆卵,每隻雌魚可產36萬到59.9萬顆卵(Aguirre and Poss, 2000)。鯉魚為一個多型態具可塑性的物種,傾向於產生多樣性與多種族,以反映選擇性的生殖與環境的影響。鯉魚是一夫多妻的。一隻產卵的雌魚通常會有多隻雄魚跟隨。在熱帶的環境中,鯉魚整年皆可生殖。而在溫帶水域,則是具季節性的生殖者(Ref. 185, in Fishbase, 2003)。已知雌魚可在一個生殖季中產出超過1百萬顆卵; 在15° C到20°C的溫度範圍內孕育; 卵在4天之內孵化。(FishBase, 2003)
    生命階段
    Hatching of carp eggs is rapid (2 days at 25°C) and larval growth is very rapid, enabling them to quickly escape predation pressure (Adamek 1998, in Koehn 2004). Over portions of its native range, common carp may be sexually mature as early as by the end of its first year, but three to four years is more common. Male carp mature before female carp (Pinto et al. 2005). They have a typical lifespan of 13 to 20 years in the wild with a reported specimen of 47 years in captivity (Chumchal 2002; Kuliyev & Agayarova 1984). The largest fish collected on one Australian study was (765 millimeters FL and 8.5 kg) and was estimated at 29 years old, which is consistent with the known life-span for common carp in Australia (Brown et al. 2005, in Jones & Stuart 2009). Over their natural range, carp live up to 15 years, with reports of individuals living up to 24 years. Males live longer than females.
    這個物種被列為世界百大入侵種
    編輯者: Profile revision: National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII) & IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)
    Updates with support from the Overseas Territories Environmental Programme (OTEP) project XOT603, a joint project with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment
    最後修改: Monday, 4 October 2010


ISSG Landcare Research NBII IUCN University of Auckland