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   Cyprinus carpio (鱼类)  English  français   
生态 分布 管理 影响 参考数据 联系


      Cyprinus carpio - Click for full size   Common carp (Photo: Konrad Schmidt, General College and James Ford Bell Museum of Natural History, University of Minnesota) - Click for full size   Painting of Cyprinus carpio  (Image: USFWS National Image Library) - Click for full size   "Mirror" form of common carp (Photo: Konrad Schmidt, General College and James Ford Bell Museum of Natural History, University of Minnesota) - Click for full size
    学名: Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus 1758
    同种异名: Carpio carpio gibbosus (Kessler, 1856), Carpio flavipinna Valenciennes, 1842, Carpio vulgaris Rapp, 1854, Cyprinus acuminatus Heckel & Kner, 1858, Cyprinus acuminatus Richardson, 1846, Cyprinus angulatus Heckel, 1843, Cyprinus atrovirens Richardson, 1846, Cyprinus bithynicus Richardson, 1857, Cyprinus carpio anatolicus Hanko, 1924, Cyprinus carpio aralensis Spiczakow, 1935, Cyprinus carpio brevicirri Misik, 1958, Cyprinus carpio elongatus Walecki, 1863, Cyprinus carpio fluviatilis Pravdin, 1945, Cyprinus carpio longicirri Misik, 1958, Cyprinus carpio monstrosus Walecki, 1863, Cyprinus carpio oblongus Antipa, 1909, Cyprinus chinensis Basilewsky, 1855, Cyprinus conirostris Temminck & Schlegel, 1846, Cyprinus festetitsii Bonaparte, 1845, Cyprinus flamm Richardson, 1846, Cyprinus fossicola Richardson, 1846, Cyprinus haematopterus Temminck & Schlegel, 1846, Cyprinus melanotus Temminck & Schlegel, 1846, Cyprinus nordmannii Valenciennes, 1842, Cyprinus sculponeatus Richardson, 1846, Cyprinus thermalis Heckel, 1843, Cyprinus tossicole Elera, 1895, Cyprinus vittatus Valenciennes, 1842
    俗名: Cá Chép (Vietnam), carp (English), carpa (Spanish), carpat (French-France), carpe (French-Switzerland), carpe (French-Canada), carpe commune (French-France), carpeau (French-France), carpo (French-France), cerpyn (Welsh), ciortan (Romanian), ciortanica (Romanian), ciortocrap (Romanian), ciuciulean (Romanian), common carp (English), crapcean (Romanian), cyprinos (Greek), escarpo (French-France), Europäischer Karpfen (German), European carp (English), fancy carp, feral carp (Australia), German carp (English), grass carp (English-Russian Federation), grivadi (Greek), ikan mas (Malay-Indonesia), Japanese domesticated carp, kapoor-e-maamoli (Farsi), kapor (Slovak), kapr obecný (Czech), karp (Afrikaans), karp (Polish), karp (Russian), karp (Swedish), karp (Ukrainian), karp dziki a. sazan (Polish), karpa (Tagalog-Philippines), karpar (Icelandic), karpe (Danish), Karpe (Norwegian), karpen (German), karper (Dutch), karpfen (German), karpion (Hebrew), karppi (Finnish), kerpaille (French), king carp, koi (English), koi carp (English), korop (Ukrainian), krapi (Albanian), kyprinos (Greek), læderkarpe (Danish), lauk mas (Malay), leather carp (English), leekoh (Malay), lei ue (Cantonese-Hong Kong), mas massan (Malay), mirror carp (English), olocari (Romanian), Oriental carp (Australia), pa nai (Lao), pba ni (Lao), pla nai (Thai), ponty (Hungarian), punjabe gad (Kashmiri-India), rata pethiya (Sinhalese), saran (Romanian), Saran (Serbian), sarmão (Portuguese), sazan (Russian), sazan baligi (Turkish), scale carp (English), sharan (Bulgarian), skælkarpe (Danish), soneri masha (Marathi), spejlkarpe (Danish), sulari (Romanian), suloi (Romanian), tikure (Amharic-Ethiopia), trey carp samahn (Khmer), trey kap (Khmer), ulucari (Romanian), weißfische (German), wild carp (English), wildkarpfen (German)
    生物类型: 鱼类
    鲤鱼被当作食用与观赏鱼种而引入全球各地的温带淡水域。鲤鱼因为牠们的数量多以及会减低水域的清澈度、破坏与拔除被许多水生物种当作栖地的水生植物的特性,使得牠们被视为是有害的动物。
    物种描述
    鲤鱼(Cyprinus carpio) 曾有纪录可长至1公尺长,约40公斤重。在澳洲,此物种可长到10公斤重,但4到5公斤重较为普遍 (Australian Museum Online, 2003)。 鲤鱼可由牠们的小眼睛、于两嘴角具有两条触须的厚唇、大的鱼鳞,和背鳍与臀鳍上坚硬的锯齿状棘刺来加以辨识。颜色多变,但通常背部为橄榄绿色到银绿色,腹部渐渐转为银黄色。
    在自然的环境下,成鱼可达到 1220 mm TL,鲤鱼可活到15岁,也有纪录显示有些个体可活到24岁(Gromov, 1979; Balon, 1995)。已知雄鱼可以活得比雌鱼久(Balon, 1995)。
    (Aguirre 与 Poss, 2000) 背棘 (总数):3-4; 背的软鳍条 (总数):17-23; 臀棘:2-3; 肛门的软鳍条:5-6; 脊椎骨 :36-37. 咽齿发达、类似臼齿,齿冠平坦或些微起伏。鳞片大且厚。野生鲤鱼通常可藉由较短胖的体型区分出来,其体长与标准体长的比例为1:3.2到1:4.8。在外型、比例、鱼鳞的排列、鳍的发育、颜色上,都有很大的变异。尾鳍 3 脊椎与 17-19个鳍条。尾鳍具有3根棘刺与17到19根鳍条。最后一根单一的臀鳍鳍条骨化,且在后端呈锯齿状; 4个触须; 17-20个分枝的背鳍条; 身体灰色至古铜色。(FishBase, 2003)
    相似物种
    Carassius auratus, Ctenopharyngodon idella, Cyprinidae

    More
    出现在:
    水道, 河口栖息地, 沼泽地, 湖泊
    栖息地描述
    Trautman(1981)发现在含有污秽物,或从农耕地溢出的物质较多的溪流,鲤鱼的数量最丰富,但是在清澈的冷水或是坡度较陡的溪流中,很少或无法发现鲤鱼分布(Nico, 1999)。底栖性; 非回游性; 淡水的; 咸淡水; 酸碱质范围:7.0-7.5; dH 范围:10.0-15.0, 温和的; 3-32 °C; 60 °N-40° N,.(FishBase, 2003) 鲤鱼偏好不流动的水体,也偏好含沙且流速慢或贝壳聚集具泥沙底质的水体。
    一般影响
    鲤鱼的觅食习惯常会激起底质,会严重增加水的浑浊度(NIWA, 2003)。这会使得水域不再具有吸引力,减少了水生植物的丰富度,也可能使得水变成不适合家畜游泳或饮用(NIWA, 2003)。在某些地方,牠们已对河道造成严重的伤害,以致必须花费大量的金钱与人力去试着根除牠们。不幸的是,大部分的努力是不成功的(NIWA, 2003)。
    这样的觅食行为也破坏了提供栖地给原生鱼类、提供食物给水禽的着根水生植物(Dentler 1993)。「McCarraher和Gregory(1970)写到,在1894年有文献记载,断线日鲈(Archoplites interruptus)因为鲤鱼破坏了牠们的产卵地而变得较稀少。」(Nico, 1999) 。实验显示鲤鱼借着激起水底沈积物,增加了水的浊度,导致大型植物因为水的清澈度降低与被连根拔起而减少了覆盖度,也导致原固定于水底沈积物与水生大型植物内的磷被释出。牠们也借着掠食与破坏栖地,而降低了大型无脊椎动物的丰富度 (Parkos&Wahl, 2000)。
    Bellrichard(1996) 发现到大型植物生物量的改变,是由于鲤鱼的直接影响。在他们的文献的检讨中, 理查德森 et al. (1995) 认为鲤鱼因为对生物系统的负面影响而恶名昭彰,包括造成其它鱼类及鸟类所利用的生殖栖地的破坏。
    用途
    鲤鱼在牠们原生地与被引入的区域,常被养殖以供食用的高商业价值之鱼种(Aguirre and Poss, 2000)。
    Notes
    Hartelet al. (1996)记录到,1970年代晚期,在梅里梅克河(Merrimack River)中,短时间内有超过2万只鲤鱼因为细菌性疾病而死亡(Nico, 1999)。
    借着减少沈水植物和降低水的清澈度,鲤鱼制造了一个其它鱼种,尤其是大型掠食性鱼种难以生存的环境。有减少掠食者补充的潜力,再加上高生产力、快速的成长率、宽广的生理适应性,以及杂食性,造成鲤鱼有能力扩散至几乎任何一个水生栖地 (Parkos & Wahl, 2000)。
    在实验状况下,幼鱼的觅食速率与成长率,在较高盐度的环境中会降低。(Wang, et al., 1997) 然而,据报告它已经适应原产地的半咸淡水域(Kuliyev 与 Agayarova, 1984)(Aguirre 与 Poss, 2000) 。
    鲤鱼(Cyprinus carpio)已经被引进超过 140个国家,其中的 18 个报告不利的生态冲击,.(Casal,pers.comm., 三月 72003 日) 鲤鱼非常善于游泳,能跳过高达1公尺的障碍物与急流。(参考文献 2906, 在 FishBase, 2003) 鲤鱼一般形成小群鱼群,然而较大的鲤鱼常会单独出现。(Smith, 1991. 在 Chumchal, 2002)
    地理分布
    原生地:被可能是的普遍鲤鱼 (鲤鱼(Cyprinus carpio)) 原产于亚洲,
    已知引进地区:经过许多世纪广泛引入许多国家,已无法确定其精确的原生地。(NIWA, 2003) 在受人类影响之前,鲤鱼被发现于黑海、里海与咸海流域,向东方进入西伯利亚与中国之内与向西远达多瑙河.(Balon, 1995. 在 Aguirre 与 Poss, 2000) 它被引入作为一个食用鱼与观赏鱼,进入世界各地温带淡水之内。( Aguirre 与 Poss, 2000) 今天它生存在除了南极洲以外的各个大陆。(NIWA, 2003)
    管理信息
    有关鲤鱼可能对原生的鱼种与水禽造成之伤害,已经促使人们尝试使用水平面控制、毒药、围网、电鱼、垂钓和围栏等方式进行移除(Parkos & Wahl, 2000)。然而鲤鱼可以在开放的系统中快速地重新建立族群,使得移除计划成为一件耗费金钱、人力,且不能间断的过程(Parkos & Wahl, 2000)。一旦在一个水体中建立族群,要将鲤鱼移除是困难且昂贵的工作(例如Cahoon 1953. in Nico, 1999)。「为了成功,防治方法需要具有成本效益,并且对其他鱼种造成最少的影响(Bonneau 199)。选择方法时,其它应考虑的因素包括水体、水温与水质、公众意见、水权与环境考虑。。管理数据 详细数据。
    营养
    Adult common carp are benthivores, feeding in sediments to a depth of about 12 centimeters by sucking up mud from the bottom, ejecting it and selectively consuming items while they are suspended; the feeding galleries of carp are easily recognised in shallow waters as depressions in the sediment (Chumchal 2002; Driver et al. 2005; Saikia & Das 2009). Common carp are omnivores; their diet therefore varies between locations and from season to season, depending on food availability (Lammens and Hoogenboezem 1991, in Koehn Brumley & Gehrke 2000). In one study microcrustaceans, for example, were common in the water and diet in spring and summer; molluscs were only eaten when they were available in large numbers; aquarium experiments indicate that chironomids are a preferred food item(Hume et al 1983a, in Koehn Brumley & Gehrke 2000). Hume and colleagues (1983a in Koehn Brumley & Gehrke 2000) found that carp in aquaria preferred to feed on chironomids, and only ate plant material such as pieces of plant tissue, seeds and filamentous green algae in the absence of chironomids. Shifting to a planktivorous diet may occur if zooplankton is limited (Saikia & Das 2009). Rieradevall (1991, in Saikia & Das 2009) also observed a shift of feed items of common carp to amphipod and phantom ridge larvae from chironomids and molluscs due to their higher availability in lake systems. This plasticity in diet may account for some of the invasiveness of common carp. Introduced carp may feed upon food resources previously unexploited by the native fish community (Britton et al. 2007); the common carp’s specialist feeding mechanism of sieving through the substrate allows them take advantage of potentially under-utilised resources, including detritus at a base level of the food chain (Koehn 2004).
    In studies, common carp were shown to feed mainly on algae and zooplankton as juveniles (<150 mm), on benthic insects, macroinvertebrates (e.g. chrionomids) and detritus as young fish (150mm to <400mm) and on the occasional extra plant matter as adults (400mm+) (Hume et al. 1983b, in Koehn Brumley & Gehrke 2000). The larvae of C. carpio forage on planktonic organisms, specifically zooplankton taxa (e.g. Arcella, Diflugia, Colurella, Bosminopsis, Bosmina, small rotifers (Lecane and Monostyla), copepods, diatoms (e.g. Bacillariophyceae) algae (e.g. Chlorophyceae) and Cyanobacteria (HHRI 1976, Li et al. 1995, in Jia et al. 2008; Saikia & Das 2009). Young common carp feed on a variety of macro-invertebrates including, aquatic insect larvae (chironomids, corixids/water boatman, caddis fly larvae), copepods, cladocerans, molluscs (e.g. snails), ostracods, microcrustaceans, tubificids, zooplankton and zooperiphyton (Sigler 1958, Matlak & Matlak 1976, Zur & Sarig 1980, Hume et al. 1983a, in Koehn Brumley & Gehrke 2000; Sibbing 1988, in Saikia & Das 2009). Adult common carp are known to eat a wide variety of organisms including, insects (e.g. beetles), crustaceans (cladocerans, copepods, ostracods, decapods) (Crivelli 1981, Vilizzi 1998, in Koehn Brumley & Gehrke 2000), annelids, mollusks, fish eggs, fish remains, aquatic plants and seeds. Seeds contain carbohydrates and carp feeding on seeds may be preferentially seeking carbohydrate-rich high-energy food (Koehn Brumley & Gehrke 2000). In studies, benthic insects are consistently important dietary items both in wild and cultured carp (USA: Sigler 1958; USSR: Guziur and Weilgosz 1975; Israel: Kugler and Chen 1968; Zur and Sarig 1980; Indonesia: Vaas and Vaas Van Oven 1959, in Koehn Brumley & Gehrke 2000). Common carp are also known to feed on the soft exposed roots of Typha latifolia and Chara aspera (Miller 2004, in Miller & Provenza 2007).
    繁殖
    产卵需要较温暖的水。在鲤鱼的自然分布区域,Balon(1995)记录到17 °C是产卵的最低温限制。Osipova(1979)纪录到野生鲤鱼在库拜索夫水库(Kubyshev Reservoir)于15 °C的状况下产卵。在鲤鱼部分原生环境,牠们最早可在出生后第一年底达到性成熟(Kuliyev & Agayarova, 1984)。根据Balon(1995)的说法,野生鲤鱼是多次产卵的鱼种,会产卵2次或3次,其中间隔14天。在产卵前由一只雌鱼与多只雄鱼所组成的交配群(Mating groups)会活泼地游动。卵的直径大小从1.24公厘到1.42公厘之间,颜色为黄绿色(Moroz, 1968; Linhart et al. 1995)。(Aguirre 与 Poss, 2000)鲤鱼的相对生产力为每公斤产10万到30万颗卵,每只雌鱼可产36万到59.9万颗卵(Aguirre and Poss, 2000)。鲤鱼为一个多型态具可塑性的物种,倾向于产生多样性与多种族,以反映选择性的生殖与环境的影响。鲤鱼是一夫多妻的。一只产卵的雌鱼通常会有多只雄鱼跟随。在热带的环境中,鲤鱼整年皆可生殖。而在温带水域,则是具季节性的生殖者(Ref. 185, in Fishbase, 2003)。已知雌鱼可在一个生殖季中产出超过1百万颗卵; 在15° C到20°C的温度范围内孕育; 卵在4天之内孵化。(FishBase, 2003)
    生命阶段
    Hatching of carp eggs is rapid (2 days at 25°C) and larval growth is very rapid, enabling them to quickly escape predation pressure (Adamek 1998, in Koehn 2004). Over portions of its native range, common carp may be sexually mature as early as by the end of its first year, but three to four years is more common. Male carp mature before female carp (Pinto et al. 2005). They have a typical lifespan of 13 to 20 years in the wild with a reported specimen of 47 years in captivity (Chumchal 2002; Kuliyev & Agayarova 1984). The largest fish collected on one Australian study was (765 millimeters FL and 8.5 kg) and was estimated at 29 years old, which is consistent with the known life-span for common carp in Australia (Brown et al. 2005, in Jones & Stuart 2009). Over their natural range, carp live up to 15 years, with reports of individuals living up to 24 years. Males live longer than females.
    这个物种被列为世界百大入侵种
    编辑者: Profile revision: National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII) & IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)
    Updates with support from the Overseas Territories Environmental Programme (OTEP) project XOT603, a joint project with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment
    最后修改: Monday, 4 October 2010


ISSG Landcare Research NBII IUCN University of Auckland