Nom taxonomique: Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus 1758
Synonymes: Carpio carpio gibbosus (Kessler, 1856), Carpio flavipinna Valenciennes, 1842, Carpio vulgaris Rapp, 1854, Cyprinus acuminatus Heckel & Kner, 1858, Cyprinus acuminatus Richardson, 1846, Cyprinus angulatus Heckel, 1843, Cyprinus atrovirens Richardson, 1846, Cyprinus bithynicus Richardson, 1857, Cyprinus carpio anatolicus Hanko, 1924, Cyprinus carpio aralensis Spiczakow, 1935, Cyprinus carpio brevicirri Misik, 1958, Cyprinus carpio elongatus Walecki, 1863, Cyprinus carpio fluviatilis Pravdin, 1945, Cyprinus carpio longicirri Misik, 1958, Cyprinus carpio monstrosus Walecki, 1863, Cyprinus carpio oblongus Antipa, 1909, Cyprinus chinensis Basilewsky, 1855, Cyprinus conirostris Temminck & Schlegel, 1846, Cyprinus festetitsii Bonaparte, 1845, Cyprinus flamm Richardson, 1846, Cyprinus fossicola Richardson, 1846, Cyprinus haematopterus Temminck & Schlegel, 1846, Cyprinus melanotus Temminck & Schlegel, 1846, Cyprinus nordmannii Valenciennes, 1842, Cyprinus sculponeatus Richardson, 1846, Cyprinus thermalis Heckel, 1843, Cyprinus tossicole Elera, 1895, Cyprinus vittatus Valenciennes, 1842
Noms communs: Cá Chép (Vietnam), carp (English), carpa (Spanish), carpat (French-France), carpe (French-Switzerland), carpe (French-Canada), carpe commune (French-France), carpeau (French-France), carpo (French-France), cerpyn (Welsh), ciortan (Romanian), ciortanica (Romanian), ciortocrap (Romanian), ciuciulean (Romanian), common carp (English), crapcean (Romanian), cyprinos (Greek), escarpo (French-France), Europäischer Karpfen (German), European carp (English), fancy carp, feral carp (Australia), German carp (English), grass carp (English-Russian Federation), grivadi (Greek), ikan mas (Malay-Indonesia), Japanese domesticated carp, kapoor-e-maamoli (Farsi), kapor (Slovak), kapr obecný (Czech), karp (Afrikaans), karp (Polish), karp (Russian), karp (Swedish), karp (Ukrainian), karp dziki a. sazan (Polish), karpa (Tagalog-Philippines), karpar (Icelandic), karpe (Danish), Karpe (Norwegian), karpen (German), karper (Dutch), karpfen (German), karpion (Hebrew), karppi (Finnish), kerpaille (French), king carp, koi (English), koi carp (English), korop (Ukrainian), krapi (Albanian), kyprinos (Greek), læderkarpe (Danish), lauk mas (Malay), leather carp (English), leekoh (Malay), lei ue (Cantonese-Hong Kong), mas massan (Malay), mirror carp (English), olocari (Romanian), Oriental carp (Australia), pa nai (Lao), pba ni (Lao), pla nai (Thai), ponty (Hungarian), punjabe gad (Kashmiri-India), rata pethiya (Sinhalese), saran (Romanian), Saran (Serbian), sarmão (Portuguese), sazan (Russian), sazan baligi (Turkish), scale carp (English), sharan (Bulgarian), skælkarpe (Danish), soneri masha (Marathi), spejlkarpe (Danish), sulari (Romanian), suloi (Romanian), tikure (Amharic-Ethiopia), trey carp samahn (Khmer), trey kap (Khmer), ulucari (Romanian), weißfische (German), wild carp (English), wildkarpfen (German)
Type d'organisme: poisson
La carpe commune (Cyprinus carpio) a été introduite comme poisson d’alimentation et d'ornement dans les eaux douce tempérées à travers le monde. Elle est considérée comme une peste en raison de ses populations abondantes et de sa tendance à réduire la clarté de l'eau et à détruire et déraciner la végétation aquatique qui sert d'habitat à de nombreuses espèces.
Carassius auratus, Ctenopharyngodon idella, Cyprinidae
Se rencontre dans:
cours d'eau, estuaires, lacs, zones humides
Adult common carp are benthivores, feeding in sediments to a depth of about 12 centimeters by sucking up mud from the bottom, ejecting it and selectively consuming items while they are suspended; the feeding galleries of carp are easily recognised in shallow waters as depressions in the sediment (Chumchal 2002; Driver et al. 2005; Saikia & Das 2009). Common carp are omnivores; their diet therefore varies between locations and from season to season, depending on food availability (Lammens and Hoogenboezem 1991, in Koehn Brumley & Gehrke 2000). In one study microcrustaceans, for example, were common in the water and diet in spring and summer; molluscs were only eaten when they were available in large numbers; aquarium experiments indicate that chironomids are a preferred food item(Hume et al 1983a, in Koehn Brumley & Gehrke 2000). Hume and colleagues (1983a in Koehn Brumley & Gehrke 2000) found that carp in aquaria preferred to feed on chironomids, and only ate plant material such as pieces of plant tissue, seeds and filamentous green algae in the absence of chironomids. Shifting to a planktivorous diet may occur if zooplankton is limited (Saikia & Das 2009). Rieradevall (1991, in Saikia & Das 2009) also observed a shift of feed items of common carp to amphipod and phantom ridge larvae from chironomids and molluscs due to their higher availability in lake systems. This plasticity in diet may account for some of the invasiveness of common carp. Introduced carp may feed upon food resources previously unexploited by the native fish community (Britton et al. 2007); the common carp’s specialist feeding mechanism of sieving through the substrate allows them take advantage of potentially under-utilised resources, including detritus at a base level of the food chain (Koehn 2004).
In studies, common carp were shown to feed mainly on algae and zooplankton as juveniles (<150 mm), on benthic insects, macroinvertebrates (e.g. chrionomids) and detritus as young fish (150mm to <400mm) and on the occasional extra plant matter as adults (400mm+) (Hume et al. 1983b, in Koehn Brumley & Gehrke 2000). The larvae of C. carpio forage on planktonic organisms, specifically zooplankton taxa (e.g. Arcella, Diflugia, Colurella, Bosminopsis, Bosmina, small rotifers (Lecane and Monostyla), copepods, diatoms (e.g. Bacillariophyceae) algae (e.g. Chlorophyceae) and Cyanobacteria (HHRI 1976, Li et al. 1995, in Jia et al. 2008; Saikia & Das 2009). Young common carp feed on a variety of macro-invertebrates including, aquatic insect larvae (chironomids, corixids/water boatman, caddis fly larvae), copepods, cladocerans, molluscs (e.g. snails), ostracods, microcrustaceans, tubificids, zooplankton and zooperiphyton (Sigler 1958, Matlak & Matlak 1976, Zur & Sarig 1980, Hume et al. 1983a, in Koehn Brumley & Gehrke 2000; Sibbing 1988, in Saikia & Das 2009). Adult common carp are known to eat a wide variety of organisms including, insects (e.g. beetles), crustaceans (cladocerans, copepods, ostracods, decapods) (Crivelli 1981, Vilizzi 1998, in Koehn Brumley & Gehrke 2000), annelids, mollusks, fish eggs, fish remains, aquatic plants and seeds. Seeds contain carbohydrates and carp feeding on seeds may be preferentially seeking carbohydrate-rich high-energy food (Koehn Brumley & Gehrke 2000). In studies, benthic insects are consistently important dietary items both in wild and cultured carp (USA: Sigler 1958; USSR: Guziur and Weilgosz 1975; Israel: Kugler and Chen 1968; Zur and Sarig 1980; Indonesia: Vaas and Vaas Van Oven 1959, in Koehn Brumley & Gehrke 2000). Common carp are also known to feed on the soft exposed roots of Typha latifolia and Chara aspera (Miller 2004, in Miller & Provenza 2007).
Stades du cycle de vie
Hatching of carp eggs is rapid (2 days at 25°C) and larval growth is very
rapid, enabling them to quickly escape predation pressure (Adamek 1998, in Koehn 2004). Over portions of its native range, common carp may be sexually mature as early as by the end of its first year, but three to four years is more common. Male carp mature before female carp (Pinto et al. 2005). They have a typical lifespan of 13 to 20 years in the wild with a reported specimen of 47 years in captivity (Chumchal 2002; Kuliyev & Agayarova 1984). The largest fish collected on one Australian study was (765 millimeters FL and 8.5 kg) and was estimated at 29 years old, which is consistent with the known life-span for common carp in Australia (Brown et al. 2005, in Jones & Stuart 2009). Over their natural range, carp live up to 15 years, with reports of individuals living up to 24 years. Males live longer than females.
Cette espèce figure sur la liste de l’UICN des 100 espèces parmi les plus envahissantes au monde
Compilé par: Profile revision: National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII) & IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)
Updates with support from the Overseas Territories Environmental Programme (OTEP) project XOT603, a joint project with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment
Dernière mise à jour: Monday, 4 October 2010