Global Invasive Species Database 100 of the worst Donations home
Standard Search Standard Search Taxonomic Search   Index Search

   Solanum mauritianum (喬木, 灌木)  English  français   
生態 分佈 管理 影響 參考資料 聯繫


      Berries in dense terminal clusters. Globose, densely covered with star-shaped hairs. Become yellow on ripening. They are 

poisonous to man and act as a host for the fruit-fly. Eagerly eaten by birds which disperse the seeds widely (Photo by R. P. Ellis available from www.ecoport.org) - Click for full size   Leaves dull green and velvety above, up to 250 mm long x 100 mm wide; emit a strong smell when bruised (Photo by R. Botha available from www.ecoport.org) - Click for full size   Flowers in compact terminal clusters. The inflorescences are very showy and although declared weeds, these plants are 

sometimes cultivated as ornamentals (Photo by R. Botha available from www.ecoport.org) - Click for full size   Leaves white-felty below, midrib thick and very conspicious (Photo by R. Botha available from www.ecoport.org) - Click for full size   Fruit in compact, branched, terminal clusters (Photo by R. Botha available from www.ecoport.org) - Click for full size   Corolla 5-lobed, lobes spreading and deep purple with a whitish central line. Stamens 5, inserted in corolla-tube; 

filaments much shorter than anthers; anthers large, oblong, dehiscing by longitudinal slits. Style long, terete, with 

capitate stigma (Photo by R. Botha available from www.ecoport.org) - Click for full size   Inflorescence a dense, many flowered, terminal cluster. Note the dense woolly felt covering the sepals and bracts. This 

greyish velvety covering occurs on most parts of the plant and consists of star-shaped hairs. The hairs are easily 

dislodged, toxic and cause respiratory problems in humans (Photo by R. P. Ellis available from www.ecoport.org) - Click for full size   Much-branched and unarmed with relatively large, woolly leaves (Photo by R. Botha available from www.ecoport.org) - Click for full size   Soft wooded perennial shrub or small tree up to 4m high. Large leaves stalked, lower surface densely covered in whitish 

felt, margins smooth. Widespread weed in South Africa, particularly of disturbed wooded areas and along streams, here from 

Pretoria (Photo by R. P. Ellis available from www.ecoport.org) - Click for full size   Typical fruit (a relatively large number of fruit, each containing many seeds, per plant as can be seen from this image) of 

the bugweed plants that provide food for fruit eating birds over a period of time in the summer months, Munster, 

KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. This allows the for easy dissemination of the seed by the birds and for the rapid 

establishement and spread of this invasive species (Photo by D. C. Nowell available from www.ecoport.org) - Click for full size
    學名: Solanum mauritianum (Scopoli, 1788)
    同種異名: Solanum auriculatum Aiton 1789, Solanum carterianum Rock 1913, Solanum tabaccifolium Vell. 1829, Solanum verbascifolium L. forma typicum Hassl. 1918, Solanum verbascifolium L. ssp. auriculatum (Aiton) Hassl. 1918, Solanum verbascifolium L. var. auriculatum (Aiton) Kuntze 1891
    俗名: bois de tabac marron (French-Reunion (La Réunion)), bringellier marron (French-Reunion (La Réunion)), bugweed (English), flannel weed (English-New Zealand), groot bitterappel (Afrikaans), igayintombi (Zulu), isigwayana (Zulu), kerosene plant (English-New Zealand), luisboom (Afrikaans), morelle de Maurice (French), pua nana honua (Hawaii), pula (Tonga), rau 'ava'ava (Cook Islands), tabac marron (French-Reunion (La Réunion)), tobacco weed (English-New Zealand), tree tobacco (English), umbanga banga (Zulu), wild tobacco (English), woolly nightshade (English-New Zealand)
    生物類型: 喬木, 灌木
    野煙樹(Solanum mauritianum)是一種普遍的入侵雜草屬於茄科。密集時會排擠原生植物生長,但如果稀疏生長,它可以作為一個苗圃作物。它的所有部位都是對人類有毒的,尤其是漿果。此植物是由鳥類傳播,其果實特別受一些物種的青睞。這個物種的生物控制已在南非進行。
    物種描述
    灌木或小喬木 2~10公尺高,上面的枝條形成一個圓形樹冠,沒有側面的分枝,整個植株密佈毛絨絨的柄與長的星狀毛,幼株有鬆散的密?毛。葉片背面的顏色較淺,單葉,互生,橢圓形,年輕繁茂的植株葉片12公分寬,成熟的莖通常約 8公分長,約 7公分寬。壓榨後有柴油味。邊緣完整,頂端漸尖,基部楔形,常是斜的,葉柄 3~9公分長,每1~2小耳狀葉片在葉腋處,這些無柄,圓形,有時沒有弱芽或遠端芽。花卉完善,輻射對稱的,有許多分枝傘房花序,花柄直徑可達 15公分,花柄2豪米長,萼筒短,2豪米長,葉窄三角形,2豪米長,花冠淡紫色,基部有淡藍色星形區,放射線狀的 ,直徑1.5~2.5公分;雄蕊5,低低地插在花冠管;絲約 1豪米長,花藥長圓形,2 3.5豪米長,終端毛孔開口;子房密被短柔毛;葉軟毛在下部,5 7豪米長,柱頭綠色,端位。漿果綠色,成熟時暗黃色,肉質,球形,直徑1~1.5cm,至少在葉軟毛的早期階段。種子多,扁平的,1.5豪米長,種皮細網狀。能自花傳粉。(瓦格納等人, 1999, PIER, 2002)“
    相似物種
    Solanum densevestitum, Solanum stelligerum

    More
    出現在:
    人造林, 天然林, 市區, 河岸區, 沿岸地區, 農業區, 雜草 /受干擾
    棲息地描述
    在夏威夷,歸化在受干擾的潮濕森林斜坡和山脊(瓦格納等人, 1999年 PIER, 2002)。一個會在人為干擾地方擴張族群的植物(KZN野生動物)。容忍不同土壤類型,耐遮蔭到一定程度(阿萊, 1997)。在南非,此植物入侵河岸帶,林業人工林,天然林,農田,城市開放空間和干擾任何其他田野(如路旁,電線等),特別是在東部,南非降雨量較高的地區的(Henderson, 2001)。
    一般影響
    可侵入市區,原始森林邊緣,牧區的土地。可形成緻密的植群妨礙其他物種的生長,經由排擠和遮蔭(阿萊, 1997)。會延緩年輕松樹(松屬)的生長(威爾迪, 2002)。所有部位都是對人類有毒的,尤其是綠色漿果(ESC, 2003)。這些漿果還提供地中海和誇祖魯,納塔爾果蠅的過冬食物,這是園藝有害植物。葉片上的細毛會是一個麻煩,尤其是在移除行動時(威爾迪, 2002)。
    用途
    在低入侵性的地區(如澳大利亞)可作為苗圃作物。這是因為它可以提供一種受保護的環境,讓原生植被在下面發芽,成長。前提是它不能長得太密,以致完全遮蔽下面的植物。果實可能是原生種鳥類一個有價值的食物來源,雖然這可能會方便長距離擴散和進一步的侵害(CGC, 2003;T. Olckers. pers. comm.)。
    地理分佈
    原生地:北阿根廷,烏拉圭,巴拉圭和巴西南部。
    已知引進地區:庫克群島,斐濟,法屬波利尼西亞(有爭議),夏威夷,新喀裡多尼亞,諾福克島,所羅門群島,湯加,留尼旺島,毛里求斯,馬達加斯加,澳大利亞,印度和一些非洲南部國家。
    有侵襲性:紐西蘭,南非,澳大利亞。
    管理資訊
    化學方法:容易使用除草劑殺死。在南非,一些化學品(如草甘膦,綠草萣,滅草煙)被登記為葉片,基部莖或削砍殘端應用。人工控制涉及環剝樹皮或拔幼苗(威爾迪, 2002)。

    生物方法:南非已著手生物控制,藉著釋放會吸汁液的蕾絲蟲(Gargaphia decoris)(1999年Olckers, 1999, 2000)。然而,這種昆蟲目前已經證明無效。南非目前正在尋求許可,釋放能防止結果實的花蕾象蟲(Anthonomus santacruzi),(T. Olckers. pers. comm.)。

    繁殖
    種子。每個花序約有20~80個漿果,每個包含大約 150個種子(T. Olckers. pers. comm.)。
    生命階段
    整年開花結實(威爾迪, 2002)。儲存在土壤中的種子經由火的刺激而發芽(ESC 2003)。夏天長成的苗木,秋季就可以開花。2~3年可長到數公尺的高度。15年後成熟的植物開始死亡(阿萊, 1997)。
    校訂者:: Dr. Terry Olckers, ARC - Plant Protection Research Institute, South Africa.
    編輯者: IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)
    最後修改: Wednesday, 22 February 2006


ISSG Landcare Research NBII IUCN University of Auckland