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   Solanum mauritianum (乔木, 灌木)  English  français   
生态 分布 管理 影响 参考数据 联系


      Berries in dense terminal clusters. Globose, densely covered with star-shaped hairs. Become yellow on ripening. They are 

poisonous to man and act as a host for the fruit-fly. Eagerly eaten by birds which disperse the seeds widely (Photo by R. P. Ellis available from www.ecoport.org) - Click for full size   Leaves dull green and velvety above, up to 250 mm long x 100 mm wide; emit a strong smell when bruised (Photo by R. Botha available from www.ecoport.org) - Click for full size   Flowers in compact terminal clusters. The inflorescences are very showy and although declared weeds, these plants are 

sometimes cultivated as ornamentals (Photo by R. Botha available from www.ecoport.org) - Click for full size   Leaves white-felty below, midrib thick and very conspicious (Photo by R. Botha available from www.ecoport.org) - Click for full size   Fruit in compact, branched, terminal clusters (Photo by R. Botha available from www.ecoport.org) - Click for full size   Corolla 5-lobed, lobes spreading and deep purple with a whitish central line. Stamens 5, inserted in corolla-tube; 

filaments much shorter than anthers; anthers large, oblong, dehiscing by longitudinal slits. Style long, terete, with 

capitate stigma (Photo by R. Botha available from www.ecoport.org) - Click for full size   Inflorescence a dense, many flowered, terminal cluster. Note the dense woolly felt covering the sepals and bracts. This 

greyish velvety covering occurs on most parts of the plant and consists of star-shaped hairs. The hairs are easily 

dislodged, toxic and cause respiratory problems in humans (Photo by R. P. Ellis available from www.ecoport.org) - Click for full size   Much-branched and unarmed with relatively large, woolly leaves (Photo by R. Botha available from www.ecoport.org) - Click for full size   Soft wooded perennial shrub or small tree up to 4m high. Large leaves stalked, lower surface densely covered in whitish 

felt, margins smooth. Widespread weed in South Africa, particularly of disturbed wooded areas and along streams, here from 

Pretoria (Photo by R. P. Ellis available from www.ecoport.org) - Click for full size   Typical fruit (a relatively large number of fruit, each containing many seeds, per plant as can be seen from this image) of 

the bugweed plants that provide food for fruit eating birds over a period of time in the summer months, Munster, 

KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. This allows the for easy dissemination of the seed by the birds and for the rapid 

establishement and spread of this invasive species (Photo by D. C. Nowell available from www.ecoport.org) - Click for full size
    学名: Solanum mauritianum (Scopoli, 1788)
    同种异名: Solanum auriculatum Aiton 1789, Solanum carterianum Rock 1913, Solanum tabaccifolium Vell. 1829, Solanum verbascifolium L. forma typicum Hassl. 1918, Solanum verbascifolium L. ssp. auriculatum (Aiton) Hassl. 1918, Solanum verbascifolium L. var. auriculatum (Aiton) Kuntze 1891
    俗名: bois de tabac marron (French-Reunion (La Réunion)), bringellier marron (French-Reunion (La Réunion)), bugweed (English), flannel weed (English-New Zealand), groot bitterappel (Afrikaans), igayintombi (Zulu), isigwayana (Zulu), kerosene plant (English-New Zealand), luisboom (Afrikaans), morelle de Maurice (French), pua nana honua (Hawaii), pula (Tonga), rau 'ava'ava (Cook Islands), tabac marron (French-Reunion (La Réunion)), tobacco weed (English-New Zealand), tree tobacco (English), umbanga banga (Zulu), wild tobacco (English), woolly nightshade (English-New Zealand)
    生物类型: 乔木, 灌木
    野烟树(Solanum mauritianum)是一种普遍的入侵杂草属于茄科。密集时会排挤原生植物生长,但如果稀疏生长,它可以作为一个苗圃作物。它的所有部位都是对人类有毒的,尤其是浆果。此植物是由鸟类传播,其果实特别受一些物种的青睐。这个物种的生物控制已在南非进行。
    物种描述
    灌木或小乔木 2~10公尺高,上面的枝条形成一个圆形树冠,没有侧面的分枝,整个植株密布毛绒绒的柄与长的星状毛,幼株有松散的密?毛。叶片背面的颜色较浅,单叶,互生,椭圆形,年轻繁茂的植株叶片12公分宽,成熟的茎通常约 8公分长,约 7公分宽。压榨后有柴油味。边缘完整,顶端渐尖,基部楔形,常是斜的,叶柄 3~9公分长,每1~2小耳状叶片在叶腋处,这些无柄,圆形,有时没有弱芽或远程芽。花卉完善,辐射对称的,有许多分枝伞房花序,花柄直径可达 15公分,花柄2豪米长,萼筒短,2豪米长,叶窄三角形,2豪米长,花冠淡紫色,基部有淡蓝色星形区,放射线状的 ,直径1.5~2.5公分;雄蕊5,低低地插在花冠管;丝约 1豪米长,花药长圆形,2 3.5豪米长,终端毛孔开口;子房密被短柔毛;叶软毛在下部,5 7豪米长,柱头绿色,端位。浆果绿色,成熟时暗黄色,肉质,球形,直径1~1.5cm,至少在叶软毛的早期阶段。种子多,扁平的,1.5豪米长,种皮细网状。能自花传粉。(瓦格纳等人, 1999, PIER, 2002)“
    相似物种
    Solanum densevestitum, Solanum stelligerum

    More
    出现在:
    人造林, 农业区, 天然林, 市区, 杂草 /受干扰, 河岸区, 沿岸地区
    栖息地描述
    在夏威夷,归化在受干扰的潮湿森林斜坡和山脊(瓦格纳等人, 1999年 PIER, 2002)。一个会在人为干扰地方扩张族群的植物(KZN野生动物)。容忍不同土壤类型,耐遮荫到一定程度(阿莱, 1997)。在南非,此植物入侵河岸带,林业人工林,天然林,农田,城市开放空间和干扰任何其它田野(如路旁,电线等),特别是在东部,南非降雨量较高的地区的(Henderson, 2001)。
    一般影响
    可侵入市区,原始森林边缘,牧区的土地。可形成致密的植群妨碍其它物种的生长,经由排挤和遮荫(阿莱, 1997)。会延缓年轻松树(松属)的生长(威尔迪, 2002)。所有部位都是对人类有毒的,尤其是绿色浆果(ESC, 2003)。这些浆果还提供地中海和夸祖鲁,纳塔尔果蝇的过冬食物,这是园艺有害植物。叶片上的细毛会是一个麻烦,尤其是在移除行动时(威尔迪, 2002)。
    用途
    在低入侵性的地区(如澳大利亚)可作为苗圃作物。这是因为它可以提供一种受保护的环境,让原生植被在下面发芽,成长。前提是它不能长得太密,以致完全遮蔽下面的植物。果实可能是原生种鸟类一个有价值的食物来源,虽然这可能会方便长距离扩散和进一步的侵害(CGC, 2003;T. Olckers. pers. comm.)。
    地理分布
    原生地:北阿根廷,乌拉圭,巴拉圭和巴西南部。
    已知引进地区:库克群岛,斐济,法属波利尼西亚(有争议),夏威夷,新喀里多尼亚,诺福克岛,所罗门群岛,汤加,留尼旺岛,毛里求斯,马达加斯加,澳大利亚,印度和一些非洲南部国家。
    有侵袭性:纽西兰,南非,澳大利亚。
    管理信息
    化学方法:容易使用除草剂杀死。在南非,一些化学品(如草甘膦,绿草萣,灭草烟)被登记为叶片,基部茎或削砍残端应用。人工控制涉及环剥树皮或拔幼苗(威尔迪, 2002)。

    生物方法:南非已着手生物控制,借着释放会吸汁液的蕾丝虫(Gargaphia decoris)(1999年Olckers, 1999, 2000)。然而,这种昆虫目前已经证明无效。南非目前正在寻求许可,释放能防止结果实的花蕾象虫(Anthonomus santacruzi),(T. Olckers. pers. comm.)。

    繁殖
    种子。每个花序约有20~80个浆果,每个包含大约 150个种子(T. Olckers. pers. comm.)。
    生命阶段
    整年开花结实(威尔迪, 2002)。储存在土壤中的种子经由火的刺激而发芽(ESC 2003)。夏天长成的苗木,秋季就可以开花。2~3年可长到数公尺的高度。15年后成熟的植物开始死亡 (阿莱, 1997)。
    校订者:: Dr. Terry Olckers, ARC - Plant Protection Research Institute, South Africa.
    编辑者: IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)
    最后修改: Wednesday, 22 February 2006


ISSG Landcare Research NBII IUCN University of Auckland