Global Invasive Species Database 100 of the worst Donations home
Standard Search Standard Search Taxonomic Search   Index Search

   Miconia calvescens (喬木)  English  français   
生態 分佈 管理 影響 參考資料 聯繫


      Landslide under Miconia forrest on Tahiti (Photo: Jean-Yves Meyer) - Click for full size   Miconia on a mountainside in Tahiti (Photo: Peter Thomas, TNC) - Click for full size   Miconia calvescens fruit (Photo: Forest & Kim Starr) - Click for full size   Miconia calvescens seedlings (Photo: Forest & Kim Starr) - Click for full size   General appearance of Miconia calvescens - Click for full size   Large leaf of Miconia calvescens - Click for full size   Detail of Miconia leaves and the shade they cause - Click for full size
    學名: Miconia calvescens D.C.
    同種異名: Cyanophyllum magnificum Groenland 1859, Miconia magnifica Triana 1871
    俗名: bush currant (English), cancer vert (French), cancer vert, miconia (English), purple plague (English), velvet tree (English)
    生物類型: 喬木
    米氏野牡丹(Miconia calvescens)是南美洲的一種高裝飾性樹,在 1937 年被引進大溪地島上的一個植物園。它的大型紅色與紫色的樹葉,深受各庭園喜愛,引進後經由食果實鳥類,傳佈到野外。今天,大溪地超過一半的地區,嚴重被此植物入侵。米氏野牡丹(Miconia calvescens)的淺鬚根,容易造成山崩土質流失。 它已經成為大溪地的大區域優勢樹冠層,遮住整個森林的下層植物的陽光。科學家估計一些島上特有種用品種正因棲地消失,面臨滅絕威脅,由於米氏野牡丹佔據棲地的結果。它有被引進其他太平洋島嶼,包括夏威夷,1960 年代作為一個裝飾性樹被引入。此植物因此在夏威夷群島上的許多地方都有。熱帶地區,仍然當作的一個裝飾性的植物銷售。
    物種描述
    中型喬木,可達15公尺。葉對生,長可達80 cm,上表面深綠,具三條明顯淡綠色脈,下表面藍紫色。花小型,白色,具淡香氣,排列成30 公分長的圓錐花叢。肉質漿果,直徑約7mm,成熟後為紫黑色。
    出現在:
    人造林, 天然林, 市區, 河岸區, 沼澤地, 沿岸地區, 矮叢/灌木, 雜草 /受干擾
    棲息地描述
    Miconia calvescens thrives in tropical montane climate regimes; it is capable of establishing in areas that receive at least 1800-2000 mm of rain per year. It grows in lowland to montane tropical rainforest at altitudes between 300 and 1800 meters. Preferred microsites include mineral soil, dead tree boles and dead tree fern trunks.
    一般影響
    米氏野牡丹形成的緻密單種立地,以其大型葉壓迫原生植物,使位居下層地被之原生種生長及更新受抑制。在大溪地島,它覆蓋超過 70% 的島。在大溪地(社會群島)有約40-50種稀有本土植物因而直接受到威脅。其脆弱的根系易容受土壤沖蝕、地滑之害。
    用途
    Also known as Miconia magnifica in horticulture, miconia has attractive bicoloured foliage and enormous inflorescences comprised of panicles of up to 3000 white or pink flowers that made it a highly attractive ornamental plant. When the alarm was raised against miconia in Hawaii in 1991-1992 (e.g. Gagné et al. 1992), all 1000+ spp. of the genus Miconia were declared noxious and prohibited under Hawaii’s Noxious Weed regulations, with the aim of preventing problems with other species in the genus. The entire family Melastomataceae is considered notorious for its perceived high percentage of invasive members (Meyer and Medeiros 2010).
    Notes
    1. Miconia calvescens is referred to as miconia in this species profile which should not be confused with the genus Miconia.
    2. Invasions of Tahitian rainforests by M. calvescens dramatically accelerate after damage and disturbance caused by cyclones (Merlin & Juvik 1995, in Murphy et al. 2008b).
    3. There are 15 invading melastomes described for Hawaii (Almeda 1990, in Baruch Pattison & Goldstein 2000), including the forest tree M. calvescens, the shrub Clidemia hirta, and the herbs from open sites, Arthrostema ciliatum and Tibouchina herbacea (Baruch Pattison & Goldstein 2000).
    4. According to botanists studying the tropical Americans miconia "never […] occurs in monospecific formations" in its native region (F. Almeda, in a letter dated November 1988 to P. Birnbaum, in Meyer 1998b); this is in stark contrast to its growth form in introduced regions. P. Morat (director of the Laboratoire de Phanerogamie of the Natural History Museum of Paris) considered that, with only some 40 herbarium specimens present in Paris, this species has been little collected and in its native countries "is obviously a very banal species" (letter dated September 1988 to J. Florence, in Meyer 1998b)
    地理分佈
    原生地:原產於美洲熱帶地區。
    管理資訊
    預防措施夏威夷與其他太平洋島嶼的米氏野牡丹(Miconia calvescens)風險評估,由 Kaulunani 都市的林業計畫與美國森林服務贊助,執行者是柯蒂斯博士 Daehler(UH 波特尼)。外來植物檢查系統衍生自 Pheloung et al。(1999)經過小幅修正使用在太平洋島嶼.(Daehler et al.2004)結果是 14 分,建議如下:可能在夏威夷與其他太平洋島嶼上引起重要的生態或者經濟的傷害,WRA 分數很高,以夏威夷和其他世界各地公開的生物學描述資訊為依據 。

    物理方法:動手移除苗木與幼木(<3 公尺)。

    化學方法:使用除草劑削減殘枝。(Garlon, Triclopyr+2,4-D)

    營養
    無可利用之資訊。但本屬植物在適當濕度下,可忍受較差之生長條件。
    繁殖
    有性繁殖、以扦插方式行無性(營養)繁殖。自交。異株異花雜交。每年有三次盛花期。一植株可產生220個花序,每個花序平均有1330個花,每個平均有208個果實,每個果實平均有195個種子。它的種子能在土壤中活到超過 10 年。
    生命階段
    為感光性種子但亦可在濃蔭下發芽(0.02%全日照)。發芽率15-至20天即可達90%以上。土壤種子庫> 50,000 seeds/m2, 其壽命超過6至8年。生長4至5年後首次開花。小苗和幼植株之生長率約為1 m/yr。
    這個物種被列為世界百大入侵種
    校訂者:: Lloyd Loope, USGS, Maui, Hawaii, USA
    編輯者: Profile revision: National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII) & IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)
    最後修改: Tuesday, 29 June 2010


ISSG Landcare Research NBII IUCN University of Auckland