Nom taxonomique: Miconia calvescens D.C.
Synonymes: Cyanophyllum magnificum Groenland 1859, Miconia magnifica Triana 1871
Noms communs: bush currant (English), cancer vert (French), cancer vert, miconia (English), purple plague (English), velvet tree (English)
Type d'organisme: arbre
Se rencontre dans:
broussailles/savanes, côtes, forêts naturelles, plantations forestières, rudéral/perturbé, zones humides, zones ripisylves, zones urbaines
Description de l'habitat
Miconia calvescens thrives in tropical montane climate regimes; it is capable of establishing in areas that receive at least 1800-2000 mm of rain per year. It grows in lowland to montane tropical rainforest at altitudes between 300 and 1800 meters. Preferred microsites include mineral soil, dead tree boles and dead tree fern trunks.
Also known as Miconia magnifica in horticulture, miconia has attractive bicoloured foliage and enormous inflorescences comprised of panicles of up to 3000 white or pink flowers that made it a highly attractive ornamental plant. When the alarm was raised against miconia in Hawaii in 1991-1992 (e.g. Gagné et al. 1992), all 1000+ spp. of the genus Miconia were declared noxious and prohibited under Hawaii’s Noxious Weed regulations, with the aim of preventing problems with other species in the genus. The entire family Melastomataceae is considered notorious for its perceived high percentage of invasive members (Meyer and Medeiros 2010).
- Miconia calvescens is referred to as miconia in this species profile which should not be confused with the genus Miconia.
- Invasions of Tahitian rainforests by M. calvescens dramatically accelerate after damage and disturbance caused by cyclones (Merlin & Juvik 1995, in Murphy et al. 2008b).
- There are 15 invading melastomes described for Hawaii (Almeda 1990, in Baruch Pattison & Goldstein 2000), including the forest tree M. calvescens, the shrub Clidemia hirta, and the herbs from open sites, Arthrostema ciliatum and Tibouchina herbacea (Baruch Pattison & Goldstein 2000).
- According to botanists studying the tropical Americans miconia "never […] occurs in monospecific formations" in its native region (F. Almeda, in a letter dated November 1988 to P. Birnbaum, in Meyer 1998b); this is in stark contrast to its growth form in introduced regions. P. Morat (director of the Laboratoire de Phanerogamie of the Natural History Museum of Paris) considered that, with only some 40 herbarium specimens present in Paris, this species has been little collected and in its native countries "is obviously a very banal species" (letter dated September 1988 to J. Florence, in Meyer 1998b)
Cette espèce figure sur la liste de l’UICN des 100 espèces parmi les plus envahissantes au monde
Révisé par: Lloyd Loope, USGS, Maui, Hawaii, USA
Compilé par: Profile revision: National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII) & IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)
Dernière mise à jour: Tuesday, 29 June 2010