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   Cyperus rotundus (莎草)  English   
生態 分佈 管理 影響 參考資料 聯繫

    學名: Cyperus rotundus L.
    同種異名: Chlorocyperus rotundus (L.) Palla, Cyperus olivaris Targioni-Tozzetti, Cyperus purpuro-variegatus Boeckeler, Cyperus stoloniferum pallidus Boeckeler, Cyperus tetrastachyos Desf., Cyperus tuberosus Roxb, Pycreus rotundus (L.) Hayek
    俗名: ‘oniani lau (Cook Islands), ‘oniani rau (Cook Islands), ‘oniani tita (Cook Islands), alho-bravo (Portuguese-Brazil), almendra de tierra (Spanish), balisanga (Ilocano), boto-botonis, brown nut sedge (English), capim-alho (Portuguese-Brazil), capim-dandá (Portuguese-Brazil), castanuela (Spanish), castañuela (Spanish), cebollín (Spanish), chaguan humatag (Chamorro), chufa (Spanish), coco (Spanish), coco grass (English), coquillo (Spanish), coquillo purpura (Spanish), coquito (Spanish), cortadera (Spanish), hamasuge (Japanese), herbe à oignons (French), ivako (Fijian), junça (Portuguese), juncia (Spanish), juncia real (Spanish), kili‘o‘opu (Hawaiian), kili'o'opu, mala-apulid (Pampangan), malanga (Fijian), matie ‘oniani (Cook Islands), matie'oniani (Maori-Cook Islands), mau‘u mokae (Hawaiian), mau‘u mokae (Hawaii), mauku ‘oniani (Cook Islands), mauku'oniani (Maori-Cook Islands), mot ha (Fijian), mothe (Nepal), mumuta (Samoan), mutha (Tagalog), nut grass (English), nut sedge (English), nutgrass (English), oniani (Maori-Cook Islands), oniani lau (Maori-Cook Islands), oniani rau (Maori-Cook Islands), oniani tita (Maori-Cook Islands), pakopako (Tagalog), pakopako (Tongan), pakopako (Tongan-Tonga), purple nut sedge, purple nut sedge (English), purple nutsedge (English), red nut sedge (English), Rundes Zypergras (German), soro ni kabani (Fijian), soronakambani (Fijian), souchet à tubercules (French), souchet d'Asie (French), souchet en forme d'olive (French), souchet rond (French), suo cao (Chinese), sur-sur (Pampangan), tamanengi (Palauan), te mumute, tiririca (Portuguese-Brazil), tiririca-vermelha (Portuguese-Brazil), tuteoneon (Marshallese), vucesa (Fijian), vuthesa (Fijian), xiang fu zi (Chinese), ya haeo mu (Thai-Central Thailand), ya khon mu (Thai), zigolo infestante (Italian)
    生物類型: 莎草
    香附子(Cyperus rotundus)可能會成為農田和花園的麻煩雜草。很多地方都認為它是一種雜草,包括紐西蘭,澳洲和美國。
    物種描述
    香附子(Cyperus rotundus)被描述為一種多年生草本植物,有長的根莖,有時有塊莖,莖稈高度可達 60公分,葉寬 2至6豪米;尖刺卵形,6公分長;小穗線狀,1至2公分長,12至30朵花,小穗軸有翼;鱗片紫色,脊狀,鈍角;瘦果倒卵形,三角形,長 1.5豪米,黑色,有小乳突(Stone 1970, PIER 1999)。
    相似物種
    Cyperus esculentus

    More
    出現在:
    水道, 河岸區, 沿岸地區, 農業區
    棲息地描述
    香附子(Cyperus rotundus)生長在耕地,路邊,廢棄地,森林邊緣和灌溉水渠與溪流沿岸。在遮蔭的環境和乾旱期,它塊莖會休眠,保持活力,一旦環境有利時就會冒出地面。此物種可生長在所有的土壤類型,氣候條件,從海平面高度到高海拔地區。在寒冷或淹水的土壤中,它生長變慢,花變小,塊莖也變少(Holm 等人, 1977, PIER 1999)。它被描述為一個全球性的莎草科雜草,生長在農田,草地,礫石和沙質海岸,河岸和廢棄地(威金斯 & 波特1971, PIER 1999)。它是農作物和花園的主要雜草之一,但在其他地方只是次要的雜草(斯瓦布里克1997, PIER 1999)。
    一般影響
    香附子(Cyperus rotundus)大多被視為農業區和草坪的有害植物。它也會侵入受干擾的棲地。它被列在紐西蘭有害雜草名單中,禁止在紐西蘭銷售。
    它也是澳大利亞聖誕島的有害植物(斯瓦布里克1997, PIER 1999)。
    一個針對澳洲香附子(C. rotundus)的風險評估,得分是13分(拒絕)。它非常適合澳大利亞的氣候,歷史上被重複地從原生地引進到原生地之外。它是一個農業雜草,也是病原體和害蟲的寄主(PIER 2001)。
    用途
    香附子(Cyperus rotundus)被當作藥物使用,可製成精油,也可以作為蔬菜食用(USDA-ARSU 2001)。
    Notes
    The impact of climate change on invasive species is a fascinating aspect of invasion biology. Rogers and colleagues (2008) tested the effects of a rise in atmospheric CO2 on purple nutsedge in controlled studies. Purple nutsedge exposed to elevated CO2 had greater total dry weight, leaf area, root length and numbers of tubers and tended to increase allocation belowground, which led to greater root-to-shoot ratio (R:S). These findings suggest that purple nutsedge may be more invasive in a future high-CO2 world (Rogers et al. 2008), however, the experiment did not account for the competitive impact of other biota.
    地理分佈
    原生地:原產於歐亞大陸(PIER 1999)。
    已知引進地區
    管理資訊
    物理方法:在封閉樹冠層下,香附子(Cyperus rotundus)會被抑制。也許可以使用塑膠片覆蓋,或種植競爭性作物加以控制。人工除草,砍筏和翻土在土壤乾燥時有效。放牧家禽和豬可提供控制(斯瓦布里克1997, PIER 1999)。豬被認為是文化控制系統的一部分。例如,至少早在1968年,在巴拿馬工作的John L. Hammerton就建議使用豬作為控制方法。帛琉和美國也提倡使用雞和鵝作為控制方法(PestNet 2009)。

    化學方法:香附子(C. rotundus)對熏蒸劑(包括甲基溴,DD和氯化苦),殘效性除草劑(包括除草定,EPTC,hexazinone,terbacil,pebulate和vernolat)和轉移性除草劑(包括草甘膦,amitrole,DSMA,MSMA和2,4-D)很敏感;控制效果經常令人失望(斯瓦布里克1997, PIER 1999)。CSIRO報告說,在棉花田中,於季節初(9月/ 10月)使用人工噴霧器(以避免漂移)噴灑草甘膦(混合溶液)。其次,在雨後使用人工割除(不是常用的方法)。一旦種植棉花,使用拖拉機後面的大型噴霧器,定期噴灑草甘膦。問題是,當天氣轉濕,無法即時噴灑草甘膦時,香附子會競爭淘汰掉棉花(11月/ 12月)。目前有一個野外控制計劃,使用化學品如森普拉(halosulfuron-methyl)和Zoliar(達草滅)(PestNet 2009)。
    1993年至1995年進行的田野研究,目的是評估使用 MON-12051(磺脲類化合物)來控制草坪上的香附子。MON-12051效果勝過bentazon和 imazaquinn,可控制黃色和紫色香附子,不會損害理想的草坪物種。處理後六個星期,紫香附子平均控制率96%(使用imazaqiun只有42%)。

    繁殖
    香附子(Cyperus rotundus)會生產種子,也可使用碎片無性繁殖(PIER 2001)。香附子(Cyperus rotundus)會生產塊莖和根莖,偶而會生產種子;種子經由風,洪水和灌溉水傳播(Holm 等人, 1977, PIER 1999)。
    生命階段
    Tuber Sprouting (Stoller & Sweet 1987): In purple nutsedge, tuberization can begin within 17 days after shoot emergence (Hammerton 1974, in Stoller & Sweet 1987), but dormant tubers are not found until 6 to 8 weeks after sprouting (Hauser 1962, in Stoller & Sweet 1987); this is followed by chain formation 10 weeks after shoot emergence (Hauser 1962b, in Bangarwa et al. 2008). Tuberization in purple nutsedge may be a response to excess carbohydrate, regulated by growth substances, photoperiod and temperature (Garg Bendixen & Anderson 1967, Hammerton 1975, in Stoller & Sweet 1987). A single purple nutsedge tuber can produce 100 tubers when allowed to grow for 12 weeks (Rao 1968, in Bangarwa et al. 2008). A patch originating from a single tuber can expand up to 5.5 m2 and produce 750 shoots within 6 months (Webster 2005, in Bangarwa et al. 2008).
    Tubers lie dormant in the soil until stimulated to sprout. When a tuber sprouts, one or more rhizomes elongate vertically from tuber buds. Roots radiate horizontally from the rhizome as it grows toward the soil surface. The rhizome tip at the soil surface is exposed to sunlight and diurnal temperature fluctuations which are the principal factors that stimulate the basal bulb to form on the rhizome under the soil surface (Stoller & Woolley 1983, in Stoller & Sweet 1987). These rhizome tips are strong and sharp and can penetrate hard substrates, so mulching is an ineffective control. The rhizome extends mostly by internode elongation until the basal bulb is initiated. Basal bulbs consist of a section of stem (rhizome) with compacted internodes containing meristems for roots, secondary rhizomes, leaves, and the flower stalk. Parent tubers remain attached to the plant throughout the season, and the plant may derive food from tubers in times of stress (Hammerton, 1974, Stoller, Nema & Bhan 1972, in Stoller & Sweet 1987).
    Vegetative Development: Several weeks after the primary shoot emerges, secondary rhizomes radiate horizontally from the basal bulb. In the early growth stages, the rhizome tips turn upward, differentiating into secondary basal bulbs similar to the primary basal bulb. Secondary bulbs produce shoots, rhizomes, and flower stalks as described for primary bulbs; and subsequent development of tertiary and higher order bulbs forms the complex system of subterranean, vegetative growth.
    Flowering: Flowering is erratic among yellow and purple nutsedge populations. Many populations of yellow and purple nutsedge do not flower after growth for a cropping season, but tubers always are produced when these weeds grow for that length of time.
    校訂者:: Under expert review
    編輯者: IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) with support from the Overseas Territories Environmental Programme (OTEP) project XOT603, a joint project with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment
    Interim profile was compiled by IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) with support from the EU-funded South Atlantic Invasive Species project, coordinated by the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds (RSPB)
    最後修改: Monday, 27 April 2009


ISSG Landcare Research NBII IUCN University of Auckland