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   Cyperus rotundus (莎草)  English   
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    学名: Cyperus rotundus L.
    同种异名: Chlorocyperus rotundus (L.) Palla, Cyperus olivaris Targioni-Tozzetti, Cyperus purpuro-variegatus Boeckeler, Cyperus stoloniferum pallidus Boeckeler, Cyperus tetrastachyos Desf., Cyperus tuberosus Roxb, Pycreus rotundus (L.) Hayek
    俗名: ‘oniani lau (Cook Islands), ‘oniani rau (Cook Islands), ‘oniani tita (Cook Islands), alho-bravo (Portuguese-Brazil), almendra de tierra (Spanish), balisanga (Ilocano), boto-botonis, brown nut sedge (English), capim-alho (Portuguese-Brazil), capim-dandá (Portuguese-Brazil), castanuela (Spanish), castañuela (Spanish), cebollín (Spanish), chaguan humatag (Chamorro), chufa (Spanish), coco (Spanish), coco grass (English), coquillo (Spanish), coquillo purpura (Spanish), coquito (Spanish), cortadera (Spanish), hamasuge (Japanese), herbe à oignons (French), ivako (Fijian), junça (Portuguese), juncia (Spanish), juncia real (Spanish), kili‘o‘opu (Hawaiian), kili'o'opu, mala-apulid (Pampangan), malanga (Fijian), matie ‘oniani (Cook Islands), matie'oniani (Maori-Cook Islands), mau‘u mokae (Hawaiian), mau‘u mokae (Hawaii), mauku ‘oniani (Cook Islands), mauku'oniani (Maori-Cook Islands), mot ha (Fijian), mothe (Nepal), mumuta (Samoan), mutha (Tagalog), nut grass (English), nut sedge (English), nutgrass (English), oniani (Maori-Cook Islands), oniani lau (Maori-Cook Islands), oniani rau (Maori-Cook Islands), oniani tita (Maori-Cook Islands), pakopako (Tagalog), pakopako (Tongan), pakopako (Tongan-Tonga), purple nut sedge, purple nut sedge (English), purple nutsedge (English), red nut sedge (English), Rundes Zypergras (German), soro ni kabani (Fijian), soronakambani (Fijian), souchet à tubercules (French), souchet d'Asie (French), souchet en forme d'olive (French), souchet rond (French), suo cao (Chinese), sur-sur (Pampangan), tamanengi (Palauan), te mumute, tiririca (Portuguese-Brazil), tiririca-vermelha (Portuguese-Brazil), tuteoneon (Marshallese), vucesa (Fijian), vuthesa (Fijian), xiang fu zi (Chinese), ya haeo mu (Thai-Central Thailand), ya khon mu (Thai), zigolo infestante (Italian)
    生物类型: 莎草
    香附子(Cyperus rotundus)可能会成为农田和花园的麻烦杂草。很多地方都认为它是一种杂草,包括纽西兰,澳洲和美国。
    物种描述
    香附子(Cyperus rotundus)被描述为一种多年生草本植物,有长的根茎,有时有块茎,茎秆高度可达 60公分,叶宽 2至6豪米;尖刺卵形,6公分长;小穗线状,1至2公分长,12至30朵花,小穗轴有翼;鳞片紫色,脊状,钝角;瘦果倒卵形,三角形,长 1.5豪米,黑色,有小乳突(Stone 1970, PIER 1999)。
    相似物种
    Cyperus esculentus

    More
    出现在:
    农业区, 水道, 河岸区, 沿岸地区
    栖息地描述
    香附子(Cyperus rotundus)生长在耕地,路边,废弃地,森林边缘和灌溉水渠与溪流沿岸。在遮荫的环境和干旱期,它块茎会休眠,保持活力,一旦环境有利时就会冒出地面。此物种可生长在所有的土壤类型,气候条件,从海平面高度到高海拔地区。在寒冷或淹水的土壤中,它生长变慢,花变小,块茎也变少(Holm 等人, 1977, PIER 1999)。它被描述为一个全球性的莎草科杂草,生长在农田,草地,砾石和沙质海岸,河岸和废弃地(威金斯 & 波特1971, PIER 1999)。它是农作物和花园的主要杂草之一,但在其它地方只是次要的杂草(斯瓦布里克1997, PIER 1999)。
    一般影响
    香附子(Cyperus rotundus)大多被视为农业区和草坪的有害植物。它也会侵入受干扰的栖地。它被列在纽西兰有害杂草名单中,禁止在纽西兰销售。
    它也是澳大利亚圣诞岛的有害植物(斯瓦布里克1997, PIER 1999)。
    一个针对澳洲香附子(C. rotundus)的风险评估,得分是13分(拒绝)。它非常适合澳大利亚的气候,历史上被重复地从原生地引进到原生地之外。它是一个农业杂草,也是病原体和害虫的寄主(PIER 2001)。
    用途
    香附子(Cyperus rotundus)被当作药物使用,可制成精油,也可以作为蔬菜食用(USDA-ARSU 2001)。
    Notes
    The impact of climate change on invasive species is a fascinating aspect of invasion biology. Rogers and colleagues (2008) tested the effects of a rise in atmospheric CO2 on purple nutsedge in controlled studies. Purple nutsedge exposed to elevated CO2 had greater total dry weight, leaf area, root length and numbers of tubers and tended to increase allocation belowground, which led to greater root-to-shoot ratio (R:S). These findings suggest that purple nutsedge may be more invasive in a future high-CO2 world (Rogers et al. 2008), however, the experiment did not account for the competitive impact of other biota.
    地理分布
    原生地:原产于欧亚大陆(PIER 1999)。
    已知引进地区
    管理信息
    物理方法:在封闭树冠层下,香附子(Cyperus rotundus)会被抑制。也许可以使用塑料片覆盖,或种植竞争性作物加以控制。人工除草,砍筏和翻土在土壤干燥时有效。放牧家禽和猪可提供控制(斯瓦布里克1997, PIER 1999)。猪被认为是文化控制系统的一部分。例如,至少早在1968年,在巴拿马工作的John L. Hammerton就建议使用猪作为控制方法。帛琉和美国也提倡使用鸡和鹅作为控制方法(PestNet 2009)。

    化学方法:香附子(C. rotundus)对熏蒸剂(包括甲基溴,DD和氯化苦),残效性除草剂(包括除草定,EPTC,hexazinone,terbacil,pebulate和vernolat)和转移性除草剂(包括草甘膦,amitrole,DSMA,MSMA和2,4-D)很敏感;控制效果经常令人失望(斯瓦布里克1997, PIER 1999)。CSIRO报告说,在棉花田中,于季节初(9月/ 10月)使用人工喷雾器(以避免漂移)喷洒草甘膦(混合溶液)。其次,在雨后使用人工割除(不是常用的方法)。一旦种植棉花,使用拖拉机后面的大型喷雾器,定期喷洒草甘膦。问题是,当天气转湿,无法实时喷洒草甘膦时,香附子会竞争淘汰掉棉花(11月/ 12月)。目前有一个野外控制计划,使用化学品如森普拉(halosulfuron-methyl)和Zoliar(达草灭)(PestNet 2009)。
    1993年至1995年进行的田野研究,目的是评估使用 MON-12051(磺脲类化合物)来控制草坪上的香附子。MON-12051效果胜过bentazon和 imazaquinn,可控制黄色和紫色香附子,不会损害理想的草坪物种。处理后六个星期,紫香附子平均控制率96% (使用imazaqiun只有42%)。

    繁殖
    香附子(Cyperus rotundus)会生产种子,也可使用碎片无性繁殖(PIER 2001)。香附子(Cyperus rotundus)会生产块茎和根茎,偶而会生产种子;种子经由风,洪水和灌溉水传播(Holm 等人, 1977, PIER 1999)。
    生命阶段
    Tuber Sprouting (Stoller & Sweet 1987): In purple nutsedge, tuberization can begin within 17 days after shoot emergence (Hammerton 1974, in Stoller & Sweet 1987), but dormant tubers are not found until 6 to 8 weeks after sprouting (Hauser 1962, in Stoller & Sweet 1987); this is followed by chain formation 10 weeks after shoot emergence (Hauser 1962b, in Bangarwa et al. 2008). Tuberization in purple nutsedge may be a response to excess carbohydrate, regulated by growth substances, photoperiod and temperature (Garg Bendixen & Anderson 1967, Hammerton 1975, in Stoller & Sweet 1987). A single purple nutsedge tuber can produce 100 tubers when allowed to grow for 12 weeks (Rao 1968, in Bangarwa et al. 2008). A patch originating from a single tuber can expand up to 5.5 m2 and produce 750 shoots within 6 months (Webster 2005, in Bangarwa et al. 2008).
    Tubers lie dormant in the soil until stimulated to sprout. When a tuber sprouts, one or more rhizomes elongate vertically from tuber buds. Roots radiate horizontally from the rhizome as it grows toward the soil surface. The rhizome tip at the soil surface is exposed to sunlight and diurnal temperature fluctuations which are the principal factors that stimulate the basal bulb to form on the rhizome under the soil surface (Stoller & Woolley 1983, in Stoller & Sweet 1987). These rhizome tips are strong and sharp and can penetrate hard substrates, so mulching is an ineffective control. The rhizome extends mostly by internode elongation until the basal bulb is initiated. Basal bulbs consist of a section of stem (rhizome) with compacted internodes containing meristems for roots, secondary rhizomes, leaves, and the flower stalk. Parent tubers remain attached to the plant throughout the season, and the plant may derive food from tubers in times of stress (Hammerton, 1974, Stoller, Nema & Bhan 1972, in Stoller & Sweet 1987).
    Vegetative Development: Several weeks after the primary shoot emerges, secondary rhizomes radiate horizontally from the basal bulb. In the early growth stages, the rhizome tips turn upward, differentiating into secondary basal bulbs similar to the primary basal bulb. Secondary bulbs produce shoots, rhizomes, and flower stalks as described for primary bulbs; and subsequent development of tertiary and higher order bulbs forms the complex system of subterranean, vegetative growth.
    Flowering: Flowering is erratic among yellow and purple nutsedge populations. Many populations of yellow and purple nutsedge do not flower after growth for a cropping season, but tubers always are produced when these weeds grow for that length of time.
    校订者:: Under expert review
    编辑者: IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) with support from the Overseas Territories Environmental Programme (OTEP) project XOT603, a joint project with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment
    Interim profile was compiled by IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) with support from the EU-funded South Atlantic Invasive Species project, coordinated by the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds (RSPB)
    最后修改: Monday, 27 April 2009


ISSG Landcare Research NBII IUCN University of Auckland