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   Arundo donax (草)  English  français   
生態 分佈 管理 影響 參考資料 聯繫


      Identification (Photo: James H. Miller, USDA Forest Service, www.forestryimages.org) - Click for full size   Margarita River; Camp Pendelton, California (Photo: John M. Randall, The Nature Conservancy, www.forestryimages.org) - Click for full size   Plants (Photo: James H. Miller, USDA Forest Service, www.forestryimages.org) - Click for full size   Plants (Photo: James H. Miller, USDA Forest Service, www.forestryimages.org) - Click for full size   Plants (Photo: James H. Miller, USDA Forest Service, www.forestryimages.org) - Click for full size   Large plants (Photo: Chuck Bargeron, The University of Georgia, www.forestryimages.org) - Click for full size
    學名: Arundo donax (L.)
    同種異名: Aira bengalensis (Retz.) J.F. Gmel., Amphidonax bengalensis (Retz.) Nees ex Steud., Amphidonax bengalensis Roxb. ex Nees., Amphidonax bifaria (Retz.) Nees ex Steud., Arundo aegyptiaca hort. ex Vilm., Arundo bambusifolia Hook. f., Arundo bengalensis Retz., Arundo bifaria Retz., Arundo coleotricha (Hack.) Honda., Arundo donax var. angustifolia Döll., Arundo donax var. coleotricha Hack., Arundo donax var. lanceolata Döll., Arundo donax var. procerior Kunth., Arundo donax var. versicolor (P. Mill.) Stokes, Arundo glauca Bubani., Arundo latifolia Salisb., Arundo longifolia Salisb. ex Hook. f., Arundo sativa Lam., Arundo scriptoria L., Arundo versicolor P. Mill., Cynodon donax (L.) Raspail., Donax arundinaceus P. Beauv., Donax bengalensis (Retz.) P. Beauv., Donax bifarius (Retz.) Trin. ex Spreng., Donax donax (L.) Asch. and Graebn.
    俗名: arundo grass (English), bamboo reed (English), caña (Spanish), caña común (Spanish), caña de Castilla (Spanish), caña de la reina (Spanish), caña de techar (Spanish), cana- do-reino (Portuguese-Brazil), cana-do-brejo (Portuguese-Brazil), cane (English), canne de Provence (French), canno-do-reino (Portuguese-Brazil), capim-plumoso (Portuguese-Brazil), carrizo (Spanish), carrizo grande (Spanish), cow cane, donax cane (English), E-grass, fiso palagi (Samoan), giant cane (English), giant reed (English), grand roseau (French), kaho (Tongan-Tonga Islands), kaho folalahi (Tongan-Tonga Islands), la canne de Provence (French- New Caledonia), narkhat (Hindi), ngasau ni vavalangi (Fijian-Fiji Islands), Pfahlrohr (German), reed grass (English), river cane (English), Spaanse-riet, Spanisches Rohr (German), Spanish cane (English), Spanish reed (English), wild cane (English)
    生物類型:
    蘆竹(Arundo donax)是多年草本植物,被廣泛地引進溫帶與亞熱帶地區的河岸與濕地。族群一旦建立後,會形成濃密的單種蘆竹林,驅逐其他原生植物,改變當地的野生物棲地。蘆竹也容易引起火災與洪水。
    物種描述
    蘆竹(Arundo donax)會形成一團團的大草堆,高3-10公尺,並有許多枝幹形成水平的淺層的地下莖。莖或空心稈上會長有類似竹節的節,直徑1-4公分,通常第一年不會分枝,之後每年會從節或是受損處長枝。葉子為長型捲鬚(約70公分),在同一平面上交互排列,舌葉帶有長毛般的穗。五月時末端會開羽狀的花,但在高緯度地區通常不開花。
    出現在:
    人造林, 天然林, 市區, 沙漠, 河岸區, 沿岸地區, 矮叢/灌木, 範圍 /草原, 農業區, 雜草 /受干擾
    棲息地描述
    蘆竹(Arundo donax)入侵地區為坡度和緩的河岸、水道旁以及一些濕地與海岸沼澤。族群一旦建立,會形成濃密的聚落,有時可達幾百英畝。在夏威夷的海岸區適應良好,常出現在灌木林(Wagner et al, 1990)。在斐濟,則廣泛分佈在山丘、開放式森林與道路旁,分佈高度可達約 200 公尺(Smith, 1979)。
    一般影響
    蘆竹(Arundo donax)取代河岸植被,對陸域昆蟲與野生動物而言是較貧乏的棲地。它會吸附沈積物,窄化疏洪道,加重侵蝕與淹水的情況。加劇野火火勢,殘枝堵住溪流破壞橋樑。其高蒸散量可能會減少水源。
    用途
    Arundo donax is grown as an ornamental for the its striking appearance, purplish stems, and for the huge feather-like panicles of purplish flowers. It is the largest and tallest ornamental grass other than bamboo, and the tallest grass that can be grown outside the tropics. The large, thick and fluffy flower plumes are used in floral arrangements. A. donax is also used to make reeds for woodwind instruments and were once used for organ pipes. Giant reed is commonly planted in wet soils to reduce erosion (Christman, 2003).
    In folk medecine, the rhizome or rootstock of Arundo donax is used for dropsy. Boiled in wine with honey, the root or rhizome has been used for cancer. This or other species of Arundo is also reported to be used for condylomata and indurations of the breast. The root infusion is regarded as antigalactagogue, depurative, diaphoretic, diuretic, emollient, hypertensive, hypotensive, and sudorific (Duke, 1997).
    地理分佈
    原生地:一般認為原產於印度次大陸。
    已知引進地區:蘆竹(Arundo donax)現在出現全世界的熱帶到暖溫帶區域, 包括熱帶島嶼。它是出現在密克羅尼西亞聯邦(波納佩島)、關島(rare per Stone, 1970),帛琉(Koror)、斐濟、夏威夷、諾魯、新加勒多尼亞、諾福克島與美屬薩摩亞的共和國, 以及印度洋的聖誕島。一個花園裝飾變種 蘆竹(Arundo donax)var.versicolor(Mill.)廣泛地被種植。它有白色斑紋的樹葉而且據報告正在斐濟與帛琉栽培。它已經廣泛地被種植在全美國較溫暖的區域,當作一個裝飾植物。它在西南部特別受歡迎,在那裡它被沿著溝渠使用以防侵蝕。(Perdue 1958)
    管理資訊
    預防措施 澳洲的蘆竹(Arundo donax)瀕危風險評估 ,執行者是太平洋島嶼瀕危生態系統[PIER],使用澳洲風險評估系統(Pheloung, 1995), 結果是:建議此植物需要較進一步的評估。

    化學方法:小族群能經由移除根狀莖而控制,但是通常需要使用水生除草劑(例如 glyphosate)削減樹葉或樹枝來控制。因為 蘆竹(Arundo donax)會向下游傳佈,最好的控制方法是從上游開始向下游進行。一旦建立族群,耐旱力很強。

    生物方法:最近開始研究使用昆蟲或病原體進行生物控制。

    營養
    適應各式土質,包含貧瘠的河川地,養分充足時會快速生長。
    繁殖
    目前只在原產地紀錄到有性生殖的情況。無性生殖的方式可經由側向生長的地下莖,或是地下莖隨水流至下游的其他區域。地下莖可以耐鹽水,經過乾燥數月之後也可以在濕的介質上生根。蘆竹重建族群的能力不是很好。成體一年只能藉由地下莖的延伸成長半公尺左右。
    這個物種被列為世界百大入侵種
    校訂者:: Tom Dudley Marine Science Institute University of California Santa Barbara & Natural Resource & Environmental Sciences University of Nevada, Reno. United States
    編輯者: National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII) & IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)
    Updates with support from the Overseas Territories Environmental Programme (OTEP) project XOT603, a joint project with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment
    最後修改: Thursday, 17 February 2011


ISSG Landcare Research NBII IUCN University of Auckland