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   Arundo donax (草)  English  français   
生态 分布 管理 影响 参考数据 联系


      Identification (Photo: James H. Miller, USDA Forest Service, www.forestryimages.org) - Click for full size   Margarita River; Camp Pendelton, California (Photo: John M. Randall, The Nature Conservancy, www.forestryimages.org) - Click for full size   Plants (Photo: James H. Miller, USDA Forest Service, www.forestryimages.org) - Click for full size   Plants (Photo: James H. Miller, USDA Forest Service, www.forestryimages.org) - Click for full size   Plants (Photo: James H. Miller, USDA Forest Service, www.forestryimages.org) - Click for full size   Large plants (Photo: Chuck Bargeron, The University of Georgia, www.forestryimages.org) - Click for full size
    学名: Arundo donax (L.)
    同种异名: Aira bengalensis (Retz.) J.F. Gmel., Amphidonax bengalensis (Retz.) Nees ex Steud., Amphidonax bengalensis Roxb. ex Nees., Amphidonax bifaria (Retz.) Nees ex Steud., Arundo aegyptiaca hort. ex Vilm., Arundo bambusifolia Hook. f., Arundo bengalensis Retz., Arundo bifaria Retz., Arundo coleotricha (Hack.) Honda., Arundo donax var. angustifolia Döll., Arundo donax var. coleotricha Hack., Arundo donax var. lanceolata Döll., Arundo donax var. procerior Kunth., Arundo donax var. versicolor (P. Mill.) Stokes, Arundo glauca Bubani., Arundo latifolia Salisb., Arundo longifolia Salisb. ex Hook. f., Arundo sativa Lam., Arundo scriptoria L., Arundo versicolor P. Mill., Cynodon donax (L.) Raspail., Donax arundinaceus P. Beauv., Donax bengalensis (Retz.) P. Beauv., Donax bifarius (Retz.) Trin. ex Spreng., Donax donax (L.) Asch. and Graebn.
    俗名: arundo grass (English), bamboo reed (English), caña (Spanish), caña común (Spanish), caña de Castilla (Spanish), caña de la reina (Spanish), caña de techar (Spanish), cana- do-reino (Portuguese-Brazil), cana-do-brejo (Portuguese-Brazil), cane (English), canne de Provence (French), canno-do-reino (Portuguese-Brazil), capim-plumoso (Portuguese-Brazil), carrizo (Spanish), carrizo grande (Spanish), cow cane, donax cane (English), E-grass, fiso palagi (Samoan), giant cane (English), giant reed (English), grand roseau (French), kaho (Tongan-Tonga Islands), kaho folalahi (Tongan-Tonga Islands), la canne de Provence (French- New Caledonia), narkhat (Hindi), ngasau ni vavalangi (Fijian-Fiji Islands), Pfahlrohr (German), reed grass (English), river cane (English), Spaanse-riet, Spanisches Rohr (German), Spanish cane (English), Spanish reed (English), wild cane (English)
    生物类型:
    芦竹(Arundo donax)是多年草本植物,被广泛地引进温带与亚热带地区的河岸与湿地。族群一旦建立后,会形成浓密的单种芦竹林,驱逐其它原生植物,改变当地的野生物栖地。芦竹也容易引起火灾与洪水。
    物种描述
    芦竹(Arundo donax)会形成一团团的大草堆,高3-10公尺,并有许多枝干形成水平的浅层的地下茎。茎或空心秆上会长有类似竹节的节,直径1-4公分,通常第一年不会分枝,之后每年会从节或是受损处长枝。叶子为长型卷须(约70公分),在同一平面上交互排列,舌叶带有长毛般的穗。五月时末端会开羽状的花,但在高纬度地区通常不开花。
    出现在:
    人造林, 农业区, 天然林, 市区, 杂草 /受干扰, 沙漠, 河岸区, 沿岸地区, 矮丛/灌木, 范围 /草原
    栖息地描述
    芦竹(Arundo donax)入侵地区为坡度和缓的河岸、水道旁以及一些湿地与海岸沼泽。族群一旦建立,会形成浓密的聚落,有时可达几百英亩。在夏威夷的海岸区适应良好,常出现在灌木林 (Wagner et al, 1990)。在斐济,则广泛分布在山丘、开放式森林与道路旁,分布高度可达约 200 公尺 (Smith, 1979)。
    一般影响
    芦竹(Arundo donax)取代河岸植被,对陆域昆虫与野生动物而言是较贫乏的栖地。它会吸附沈积物,窄化疏洪道,加重侵蚀与淹水的情况。加剧野火火势,残枝堵住溪流破坏桥梁。其高蒸散量可能会减少水源。
    用途
    Arundo donax is grown as an ornamental for the its striking appearance, purplish stems, and for the huge feather-like panicles of purplish flowers. It is the largest and tallest ornamental grass other than bamboo, and the tallest grass that can be grown outside the tropics. The large, thick and fluffy flower plumes are used in floral arrangements. A. donax is also used to make reeds for woodwind instruments and were once used for organ pipes. Giant reed is commonly planted in wet soils to reduce erosion (Christman, 2003).
    In folk medecine, the rhizome or rootstock of Arundo donax is used for dropsy. Boiled in wine with honey, the root or rhizome has been used for cancer. This or other species of Arundo is also reported to be used for condylomata and indurations of the breast. The root infusion is regarded as antigalactagogue, depurative, diaphoretic, diuretic, emollient, hypertensive, hypotensive, and sudorific (Duke, 1997).
    地理分布
    原生地:一般认为原产于印度次大陆。
    已知引进地区:芦竹(Arundo donax)现在出现全世界的热带到暖温带区域, 包括热带岛屿。它是出现在密克罗尼西亚联邦 (波纳佩岛) 、关岛 (rare per Stone, 1970) ,帛琉 (Koror) 、斐济、夏威夷、诺鲁、新加勒多尼亚、诺福克岛与美属萨摩亚的共和国, 以及印度洋的圣诞岛。一个花园装饰变种 芦竹(Arundo donax)var.versicolor(Mill.) 广泛地被种植。它有白色斑纹的树叶而且据报告正在斐济与帛琉栽培。它已经广泛地被种植在全美国较温暖的区域,当作一个装饰植物。它在西南部特别受欢迎,在那里它被沿着沟渠使用以防侵蚀。(Perdue 1958)
    管理信息
    预防措施 澳洲的芦竹(Arundo donax)濒危风险评估 ,执行者是太平洋岛屿濒危生态系统[PIER],使用澳洲风险评估系统(Pheloung, 1995), 结果是:建议此植物需要较进一步的评估。

    化学方法:小族群能经由移除根状茎而控制,但是通常需要使用水生除草剂 (例如 glyphosate) 削减树叶或树枝来控制。因为 芦竹(Arundo donax)会向下游传布,最好的控制方法是从上游开始向下游进行。一旦建立族群,耐旱力很强。

    生物方法:最近开始研究使用昆虫或病原体进行生物控制。

    营养
    适应各式土质,包含贫瘠的河川地,养分充足时会快速生长。
    繁殖
    目前只在原产地纪录到有性生殖的情况。无性生殖的方式可经由侧向生长的地下茎,或是地下茎随水流至下游的其它区域。地下茎可以耐盐水,经过干燥数月之后也可以在湿的介质上生根。芦竹重建族群的能力不是很好。成体一年只能藉由地下茎的延伸成长半公尺左右。
    这个物种被列为世界百大入侵种
    校订者:: Tom Dudley Marine Science Institute University of California Santa Barbara & Natural Resource & Environmental Sciences University of Nevada, Reno. United States
    编辑者: National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII) & IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)
    Updates with support from the Overseas Territories Environmental Programme (OTEP) project XOT603, a joint project with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment
    最后修改: Thursday, 17 February 2011


ISSG Landcare Research NBII IUCN University of Auckland