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   Iguana iguana (reptile)  English 
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    Nom taxonomique: Iguana iguana (Linnaeus, 1758)
    Synonymes: Hypsilophus tuberculatus Fitzinger 1843, Hypsilophus tuberculatus Wagler 1830, Iguana coerulea Daudin 1802, Iguana coerulea Spix (non Daudin) 1825, Iguana emarginata Spix 1825, Iguana Hernandessi JAN 1857 (nomen nudum fide Smith & Taylor 1950), Iguana iguana Conant & Collins 1991: 95, Iguana iguana Liner 1994, Iguana iguana Schwartz & Henderson 1991: 419, Iguana lophryoides Spix 1825, Iguana minima Laurenti 1768, Iguana sapidissima Merrem 1820, Iguana sapidissima Wied 1824, Iguana squamosa Spix 1825, Iguana tuberculata Boulenger 1885: 189, Iguana tuberculata Cope 1886: 270, Iguana tuberculata Dumeril & Bibron 1837: 203, Iguana tuberculata Gunther 1885: 56, Iguana tuberculata Laurenti 1768, Iguana viridis Spix 1825, Iguana vulgaris Link 1806, Lacerta Igvana Linnaeus 1758: 206, Prionodus iguana Wagler 1828
    Noms communs: common iguana (English), gallina de palo (Spanish), green iguana (English), grön leguan (Swedish), iguana verde (Spanish), iguane commun (French), iguane vert (French)
    Type d'organisme: reptile
    Iguana iguana (iguane vert) est un lézard originaire des régions tropicales d'Amérique latine et il peut atteindre 1,5 m de longueur et peser de 4 à 5Kg. Il est associé aux régions côtières chaudes, aux basses altitudes et aux cours d'eau, en particulier ceux recouverts par des arbres. Il fréquente les forêts de mangrove et les milieux salins, mais il a besoin d'avoir accès à l'eau douce. Populaire comme animaux de compagnie dans toute l'Amérique et en Europe, leurs propriétaires ne se rendent pas souvent compte de l'espace dont un reptile a besoin et ils les relâchent dans la nature. Iguana iguana est considérée comme une espèce exotique envahissante à Puerto Rico et des concentrations importantes sont rencontrées dans les zones urbaines du sud de la Floride où elle utilise les terriers de la chevêche des terriers (Athene cunicularia floridana) et où elle consomme des fruits de plantes envahissantes, agissant donc comme un agent potentiel de dispersion. L’espèce a été citée comme la source d'un certain nombre de cas de salmonellose humaine confirmés en laboratoire. Elle constitue également un risque pour certaines opérations aéroportuaires.
    Description
    Green iguana grow to around 1.5m in length and 4 to 5kgs in weight (Engeman et al. 2005).
    Se rencontre dans:
    côtes, cours d'eau, estuaires, zones humides, zones ripisylves
    Description de l'habitat
    Iguana iguana are known to show a preference for disturbed sites near standing water. In Florida they are associated with warm coastal regions free of frost. They are often found associated with waterways, such as bays, canals, ponds and ditches, and especially areas where trees extend over water. They also inhabit mangrove forests and saltwater habitats (Meshaka et al. 2004).
    Impacts globaux
    Competition and hybridization between Iguana iguana and the Lesser Antilles iguana, the 'Vulnerable 'VU' (Iguana delicatissima), are mentioned as the main causes of the virtual disappearance of the Lesser Antilles iguana from Iles des Saintes, Guadeloupe, in the second half of the 20th century (Breuil and Sastre, 1993). On Martinique, the green iguana which is larger and more opportunistic in its food choices than the endemic I. delicatissima may be a strong competitor for the latter (Breuil, 2002). Green iguana may compete for resources with the 'Critically Endangered (CR)' endemic Cayman island ground iguana (see Cyclura lewisi in IUCN Red List of Threatened Species) on Grand Cayman, if their ranges overlap in the future (Burton, 2003).

    While there are reports of juvenile green iguana being predated on by the Florida burrowing owl (Athene cunicularia floridana a species of 'Special Concern'); there are concerns that adult green iguana may venture into burrows of the owl and forage on eggs and hatchlings (McKie et al. 2005). In their native range green iguana are known to be herbivorous through their lifespan, however, juveniles have been reported to maybe, be omnivorous (Savage 2002). Analysis of stomach contents of 18 green iguanas by Townsend et al. (2005) as part of an ongoing study on the exotic herpetofauna and its management in Florida, discovered the remains of an arboreal snail Drymaeus multilineatus in two specimens, one with accompanying plant material (suggesting that they could have been ingested accidentally with plant material on which the snails were aestivating) and the other without (suggesting that they could have ingested the snails intentionally). The authors of this study point out that while D. multilineatus is widespread and in no immediate danger, increased numbers of green iguana could potentially impact on tree snails with restricted distributions, whose native range overlap with that of the green iguana.
    Green iguana are reported to be posing a collision hazard on airport runways in Puerto Rico (Engeman et al. 2005).
    The keeping of reptiles as pets has been cited as the source of a number of laboratory-confirmed cases of human salmonellosis associated with exposure to exotic pets including iguanas (Woodward et al. 1997).

    Utilisations
    Green iguanas make popular pets throughout America and Europe. They are known for their docile, attractive and interesting traits (Meshaka et al. 2004).
    Throughout Central America, iguanid lizards (I. iguana and Ctenosaura similis) are captured by professional lizard hunters and sold at local markets (Fitch et al. 1982, in Klemens and Thorbjarnarson 1995). There is even a significant trade of lizards across borders from the Honduras and Guatemala to El Salvador. Iguanas and their eggs are used both as food and for medicinal purposes, depending on the region. In some cultures iguana eggs are believed to be aphrodisiacs (Werner 1991, in Klemens and Thorbjarnarson 1995). The green iguana has been managed on a sustained-yield basis in Panama (one of the few instances of a successful sustainable project for reptiles). The iguana's forested habitat is being protected and it provides a dependable, sustainable source of protein for rural inhabitants (Werner 1991, in Klemens and Thorbjarnarson 1995).
    Notes
    In Florida the green iguana is known to be eaten by the domestic dog Canis familiaris (Meshaka et al. 2004); the yellow-crowned night-heron (Nyctanassa violacea) (Engeman et al 2005); the Florida burrowing owl (Athene cunicularia floridana a species of 'Special Concern') (McKie et al. 2005) and the introduced raccoon (Procyon lotor) which eats juveniles, attacks adults and preys on nests (Smith et al. 2006).
    Distribution géographique
    Native range: Iguana iguana has a wide native range and is found at low elevations on the mainland from Sinaloa, Mexico south to Ecuador on the Pacific versant and Veracruz, Mexico to southern Brazil on the Atlantic versant, as well as on some Central and South American coastal islands and throughout the Lesser Antilles (Townsend et al. 2003).
    Known introduced range: The green iguana has been introduced to southern Florida and Hawaii (McKeown 1996, in Townsend et al. 2003). It has been reported as an exotic pest in Puerto Rico (Engeman et al. 2005). Green iguana have been introduced to Anguilla (Daltry 1998); Cayman Islands (Burton, 2003); Turks and Caicos (Manco 2003) in Varnham 2006; Guadeloupe, Martinique, the Netherlands Antilles, and St. Martin (Breuil, 2002); there are reports of an introduced imported population in Saint Lucia; and pet escapees in the wild in Israel (Hatzofe, 2006); an introduced population of green iguana has been reported from Fiji (NatureFiji-MareqetiViti, 2010).
    Alimentation
    In their native range green iguana are known to be herbivorous through their lifespan, however, juvenlies have been reported to maybe, be omnivorous (Savage 2002). Analysis of stomach contents of 18 green iguana by Townsend et al. (2005) as part of an ongoing study on the exotic herpetofauna and its management in Florida, discovered the remains of an arboreal snail Drymaeus multilineatus in two specimens, one with accompanying plant material (suggesting that they could have been ingested accidentally with plant material on which the snails were aestivating) and the other without (suggesting that they could have ingested the snails intentionally).
    Reproduction
    Attaining maturity may take three to four years but female green iguana can produce large clutches for many years (Meshaka et al. 2004).
    Stades du cycle de vie
    On Key Biscayne, (Florida, USA) green iguana nest in sandy areas, often with multiple females utilising a single small area. Most hatchlings appear during July and August (Townsend et al. 2003).
    Compilé par: IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group
    Updates with support from the Overseas Territories Environmental Programme (OTEP) project XOT603, a joint project with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment
    Dernière mise à jour: Tuesday, 15 June 2010


ISSG Landcare Research NBII IUCN University of Auckland