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      Salmo trutta  (Photo: Wikimedia Commons, Eric Engbretson for U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service) - Click for full size   Salmo trutta  (Photo: Wikimedia Commons) - Click for full size   Salmo trutta (Photo: Dave Fuller, Montana Fish, Parks and Wildlife, USA) - Click for full size   Salmo trutta (Photo: Noel M. Burkhead) - Click for full size   Salmo trutta (Photo: SAREP) - Click for full size
    Taxonomic name: Salmo trutta Linnaeus, 1758
    Synonyms: Fario argenteus Valenciennes, 1848, Salar ausonii parcepunctata Heckel & Kner, 1858, Salar ausonii semipunctata Heckel & Kner, 1858, Salar ausonii Valenciennes, 1848, Salar bailloni Valenciennes, 1848, Salar gaimardi Valenciennes, 1848, Salar spectabilis Valenciennes, 1848, Salmo albus Bonnaterre, 1788, Salmo albus Walbaum, 1792, Salmo brachypoma Günther, 1866, Salmo caecifer Parnell, 1838, Salmo cambricus Donovan, 1806, Salmo caspius Kessler, 1877, Salmo cornubiensis Walbaum, 1792, Salmo cumberland Lacepède, 1803, Salmo eriox Linnaeus, 1758, Salmo fario loensis Walbaum, 1792, Salmo fario major Walecki, 1863, Salmo gadoides Lacepède, 1803, Salmo gallivensis Günther, 1866, Salmo islayensis Thomson, 1873, Salmo lacustris septentrionalis Fatio, 1890, Salmo levenensis Yarrell, 1839, Salmo mistops Günther, 1866 , Salmo montana Walker, 1812, Salmo orcadensis Günther, 1866, Salmo orientalis McClelland, 1842, Salmo phinoc Shaw, 1804, Salmo polyosteus Günther, 1866, Salmo saxatilis Paula Schrank, 1798, Salmo spurius Pallas, 1814, Salmo stroemii Gmelin, 1788, Salmo sylvaticus Gmelin, 1788, Salmo taurinus Walker, 1812, Salmo trutta abanticus Tortonese, 1954, Salmo trutta ciscaucasicus Dorofeyeva, 1967, Salmo trutta ezenami (non Berg, 1948), Salmo trutta trutta Linnaeus, 1761, Salmo trutta Linnaeus, 1759, Trutta fluviatilis Duhamel, 1771, Trutta marina Duhamel, 1771, Trutta marina Moreau, 1881, Trutta salmanata Ström, 1784, Trutta salmonata Rutty, 1772
    Common names: an breac geal (Gaelic, Irish), aure (Norwegian), bachforelle (German), blacktail (English), breac geal (Gaelic, Irish), brook trout (English), brown trout (English), denizalabaligi (Turkish), denizalasi (Turkish), Europäische Forelle (German), finnock (English), forelle (German), galway sea trout (English), gillaroo (English), gwyniedyn (Welsh), havørred (Danish), havsöring (Swedish), herling (English), hirling (English), kumzha (Russian), k'wsech (Salish), lachförch (German), lachsforelle (German), lassföhren (German), losos taimen (Russian-Latvia), losos' taimen (Russian), mahiazad-e-daryaye khazar (Farsi), meerforelle (German), meritaimen (Finnish), morska postrv (Slovenia), morskaya forel' (Russian), orange fin (English), öring (Swedish), orkney sea trout (English), ørred (Danish), ørret (Norwegian), pastrav de mare (Romanian), peal (English), pstruh morsky (Czech), pstruh obecný (Czech), pstruh obecný severomorský (Czech), pstruh obycajný (Slovak), salmo trota (Italian), salmon trout (English), sea trout (English), sewin (English), siwin (Welsh), sjøaure (Norwegian), sjøørret (Norwegian), sjourrioi (Icelandic), taimen (Finnish), thalasopestrofa (Greek), troc (Polish), troc wedrowna (Polish), trota fario (Italian), trout (English), trucha (Spanish), trucha común (Spanish), trucha marina (Spanish), truita (Catalan), truite brune (French), truite brune de mer (French), truite de mer (French), truite d'europe (French), truta marisca (Portuguese), truta-de-lago (Portuguese), truta-fário (Portuguese), truta-marisca (Portuguese), urriði (Icelandic), whiting (English), whitling (English), zeeforel (Dutch)
    Organism type: fish
    Salmo trutta has been introduced around the world for aquaculture and stocked for sport fisheries. It is blamed for reducing native fish populations, especially other salmonids, through predation, displacement and food competition. It is a popular angling fish.
    Description
    Brown trout get their name from the brown or golden brown hue on their bodies. Some of the other characteristics: their sides are silvery or yellow and bellies are white or yellowish; dark spots, sometimes encircled by a pale halo, are plentiful on the back and sides; spotting also can be found on the head and the fins along the back; rusty-red spots also occur on the sides; the small adipose (or fatty) fin in front of the tail has a reddish hue; sea-run brown trout have a more silvery colouration and the spotting is less visible.
    Brown trout closely resemble Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout, but salmon have no red colouration on the adipose fin and rainbow trout have lines of black spots on the tail. Young brown trout (parr) have 9-14 dark narrow parr marks along the sides and some red spotting along the lateral line.
    Brown trout can grow to be quite large, especially sea-run fish. Fish weighing up to 31kg (68 lb) have been recorded in Europe (Fisheries & Oceans Canada, 2004). Wild trout reach sizes of 9kg (20 lbs).
    Similar Species
    Salmo salar

    More
    Occurs in:
    estuarine habitats, lakes, marine habitats, water courses
    Habitat description
    Brown trout are primarily a freshwater species, but can spend time in the sea, they hide in shallow water weed beds and rocky, boulder-strewn areas, and prefer a water temperature of 18-23 degrees C (65-75 degrees F). Brown trout prefer cold, well-oxygenated upland waters although their tolerance limits are lower than those of rainbow trout (FishBase, 2003).
    General impacts
    Brown trout have been implicated in reducing native fish populations (especially other salmonids) through predation, displacement, and food competition (Taylor et al. 1984, in Fuller, 1999). Although it rarely occurs, in America the brown trout is one of the few foreign species able to hybridize with natives, (Fuller, 1999).
    Uses
    Fisheries: commercial, aquaculture: commercial, gamefish, aquarium. Marketed fresh and smoked; eaten fried, broiled, boiled, cooked in microwave, and baked (FishBase, 2003).
    Notes
    Mainly diurnal, (FishBase, 2003).
    Geographical range
    Native range: Europe, northern Africa, and western Asia (Page and Burr 1991, in Fuller, 1999).
    Known introduced range: North America and South America, United Kingdom, Europe, Russia, Middle East, Australia, New Zealand, North Africa, South Africa, throughout Asia, Hawai‘i and Fiji.
    Introduction pathways to new locations
    Aquaculture: primarily bred and stocked for recreational fishing
    Stocking: primarily bred and stocked for recreational fishing


    Local dispersal methods
    Aquaculture (local): primarily bred and stocked for recreational fishing
    Management information
    Preventative measures: The use of potentially invasive alien species for aquaculture and their accidental release/or escape can have negative impacts on native biodiversity and ecosystems. Hewitt et al, (2006) Alien Species in Aquaculture: Considerations for responsible use aims to first provide decision makers and managers with information on the existing international and regional regulations that address the use of alien species in aquaculture, either directly or indirectly; and three examples of national responses to this issue (Australia, New Zealand and Chile). The publication also provides recommendations for a ‘simple’ set of guidelines and principles for developing countries that can be applied at a regional or domestic level for the responsible management of Alien Species use in aquaculture development. These guidelines focus primarily on marine systems, however may equally be applied to freshwater.

    Copp et al, (2005) Risk identification and assessment of non-native freshwater fishes presents a conceptual risk assessment approach for freshwater fish species that addresses the first two elements (hazard identification, hazard assessment) of the UK environmental risk strategy. The paper presents a few worked examples of assessments on species to facilitate discussion. The electronic Decision-support tools- Invasive-species identification tool kits that includes a freshwater and marine fish invasives scoring kit are made available on the Cefas (Centre for Environment, Fisheries & Aquaculture Science) page for free download (subject to Crown Copyright (2007-2008)).

    Nutrition
    Feeds on aquatic and terrestial insects, molluscs, crustaceans and small fish (FishBase, 2003).
    Reproduction
    "Matures in 3-4 years. Reproduces in the rivers. Female produces about 10,000 eggs " (FishBase, 2003)
    Lifecycle stages
    Life history and spawning behaviour is similar to salmon, (FishBase, 2003). Spawning takes place in shallow freshwater ( Kroon, F. pers. comm, Jan 2004). "Female covers the eggs by restirring the sand and fine gravel. After hatching at 12mm, larval brown trout remain in the gravel for 2-3 weeks until they are about 25mm long, when they emerge to begin feeding in the water column. Brown trout are territorial and begin establishing territories as juveniles. Juvenile trout from lake populations move from their natal inlets to lakes during the first 2 years of life." (FishBase, 2003). Juvenile brown trout either migrate to the ocean or stay in freshwater ( Kroon, F. pers. comm, Jan 2004).
    This species has been nominated as among 100 of the "World's Worst" invaders
    Reviewed by: Dr. Frederieke Kroon, Research Scientist. CSIRO Land and Water Long Pocket Laboratories, Indooroopilly, QLD Australia.
    Compiled by: National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII) & IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)
    Updates with support from the Overseas Territories Environmental Programme (OTEP) project XOT603, a joint project with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment
    Last Modified: Monday, 4 October 2010


ISSG Landcare Research NBII IUCN University of Auckland