來源： Webb et al., 1988
Webb et al. (1988) list Cestrum nocturnum as a naturalised species, forming self-maintaining populations through seed or vegetative reproduction or occurring repeatedly in natural, semi-natural and urban habitats near Whangarei and in Auckland and Tauranga (Webb et al., 1988). Within Auckland it is noted as naturalised in Whangaparoa Peninsula, Parnell (Webb et al., 1988) and Waitakere City (Waitakere City Council, 2010). It is a commonly cultivated plant in the warmer areas of New Zealand, introduced as an ornamental species and noted generally to grow to a height of between 1.5 and 2.5 m (Webb et al., 1988). Flowering in New Zealand occurs between November and March (Webb et al., 1988). Cestrum spp. including C. nocturnum are noted as being poisonous and responsible for the deaths of many cattle and some sheep in New Zealand (Connor, 1977). While most of these have been documented from C. parqui, (see profile in the Global Invasive Species Database) other Cestrum spp. growing in gardens are also capable of causing stock poisoning (Connor, 1977). The symptoms of Cestrum poisoning in livestock are generally gastro-enteritis and acute pain which may also lead to animal aggression (Connor, 1977). Post-mortem examination may also show numerous haemorrhages in addition to gastro-enteritis (Connor, 1977). Connor (1977) also reported a non-fatal poisoning of a child by an unspecified <>Cestrum species. All parts of the plant are poisonous fresh or dried (Connor, 1977) with the observed toxic effects thought to be due to the presence of saponins (Halim et al., 1971; in Connor, 1977).
The most recent Auckland Regional Pest Management Strategy [RPMS] (2007 - 2012) (Auckland Regional Council [ARC], 2007) has listed Cestrum nocturnum as a "Research Organism" which is the same as the 2002 - 2007 Auckland RPMS (ARC, 2002). This means that futher research is considered neccessary before it is recognised as "capable of causing at some time a serious adverse and unintended effect" in terms of biosecurity values. Research Organisms are not considered pests and as such there are no rules or regulations restricting their propagation and growth (ARC, 2007). The 2007 - 2012 Auckland RPMS states that a comprehensive Biosecurity Research Implementation Plan (BRIP) will be developed, allowing the ARC to assess these Research Organisms and other potential pest species in order to determine whether they pose a significant risk to the Auckland region, potential pest pathways and vectors and also alternative recommendable species (ARC, 2007). C. nocturnum has not been included in the National Plant Pest Accord (NPPA) which would prevent their sale, propagation or distribution primarily due to a lack of information on current distribution and potential effects (Biosecurity New Zealand, 2010).
A five-year weed control programme run by Waitakere City Council identified C. nocturnum as one of many exotic species to be controlled along "total control roads" through herbicide sprayng; roadsides have been identified as significant vectors for the spread of environmental weed species (Waitakere City Council, 2006). The herbicide or herbicides to be used were not specified in this report.
人類健康: Connor (1977) reported the non-fatal poisoning of a child by an unspecified Cestrum species. Williams (2008) states that C. nocturnum is capable of causing hay-fever like symptoms in humans but that no reports to the National Poisoning Centre have been made since 2002.
經濟 /民生: All parts of Cestrum spp. Including Cestrum nocturnum have been reported as poisonous and capable of resulting in the death of livestock (Connor, 1977).
農業: All parts of Cestrum spp. Including Cestrum nocturnum have been reported as poisonous and capable of resulting in the death of livestock (Connor, 1977).
最後修改 ： 1/09/2010 1:22:57 p.m.