来源： Ficetola et al. 2007a
到达日期： 1991 (Crayon, 2002)
In Europe, populations of the American bullfrog have been reported from central and southwest France (Santos-Barrera et al. 2009), and the frog is established there (Pascal et al. 2006, in Scalera 2007). Ficetola and colleagues (2007a) performed a survey in southwest France over 2500 wetlands and found bullfrogs over about 2000 km²; this is apparently the European area in which the strongest expansion of bullfrogs is taking place. The surveys detected the presence of L. catesbeianus in 123 out the 2505 wetlands and successful reproduction was observed in 30 wetlands. Breeding populations are present in two geographic areas: Gironde and Dordogne. This first monitoring of the situation in southwest France suggests an alarming expansion of the species compared to other European areas. The Gironde population was established in 1968 from pet frogs orginating from the USA (Ficetola et al. 2007a). A population in Perigord originated from two introductions (1981 and 1990) and was established from pet frogs. A population in Loir et Cher was established in 2002.
Physical Control: In southwestern France, a long-term regional program was started in May 2003, conducted by Cistude Nature (environment protection organisation) (Lorvelec & Détaint 2006). It aims at the development of strategies and management tools (in particular egg collection, tadpoles trapping, and juvenile and adult shooting) before early 2007, to try to limit American Bullfrog populations, or even to eradicate them (Lorvelec & Détaint 2006).
Education and Awareness: The eradication plan is accompanied by education of local people to the problems caused by biological invasions (Détaint and Coic 2006, in Ficetola et al. 2007a).
传播疾病: A study by Garner and colleagues (2006) adds France to the list of European countries with amphibians that are known to be infected with Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis . For more information on disease transmission in relation to the American bullfrog please see Lithobates catesbeianus (American Bullfrog) Impacts Information.
降低本地生物多样性: It has been claimed that L. catesbeianus has led to decline of native fish in the Aquitaine of southwestern France (Touratier 1992a, in Kraus 2009).
最后修改 ： 13/01/2010 1:07:03 p.m.