來源： Praneetvatakul 2001
Mimosa pigra has been a serious weed in Thailand since the early 1980s (Napompeth 1983, in Triet et al Undated).
Following the release of Neurostrota gunniella (Busck) (Gracillariidae), a moth species, as part of a collaborative project between Australia and Thailand (supported by ACIAR - Australian Center for International Agricultural Research) N. gunniella was sent to quarantine facilities in Thailand in 1990 for the purpose of quarantined host range studies. The studies found that the moth breed on and substantially damaged Neptunia Oleracea. N. Oleracea is a perennial, aquatic herb that may grow prostrate near the water’s edge or may float (by the production of spongy aerenchyma around its stems). The species is an economically important food source in Thailand and Vietnam. It is farmed in ponds and the young shoots are harvested as a vegetable. For this reason, N. gunniella was not released in Thailand. In fact, its release in any part of Southeast Asia (even regions lacking N. Oleracea) is discouraged (Frono Fichera and Prior 1999).
The Australian Centre for Agricultural Research has funded two biological control projects to control M. pigra in Thailand. One was undertaken between 1985-1987 and the other between 1988-1991 (both with budgets of about A$600 000). The insects in the project included: (1) seed bruchids, Acanthoscelides puniceus and A. quadridentatus (the most effective ones); (2) a top shoot feeder, Chlamisus mimosae (ineffective); (3) a top shoot borer, Neurostrota gunniella (rejected); (4) a stem borer, Carmenta mimosa (ineffective) and (5) a flower feeder, Coelocephalapion aculeatum (ineffective). In Thailand, damage to M. pigra did not occur until the 12th year after the insects were released. This impact lag was significantly less than in the Northern Territory, where there was an 18 year lag. It is thought that the Thailand project may have benefited from the knowledge gained from other projects. The percentage of damaged M. pigra seed caused by A. quadridentatus, the most effective biocontrol agent, in 23 areas surveyed between 1993 and 1994 ranged from 2% to 80%.
改變水文: Mimosa pigra chokes waterways and irrigation ditches. This reduces water flow in canals and rivers and accelerates the build-up of silt in reservoirs. Economically important reservoirs may be threatened by the presence of the weed. A reservoir has the potential to last for about 100 years in the absence of M. pigra and for about 25 years in the presence of the weed (Robert 1982, in Praneetvatakul 2001).
滋擾人類: Mimosa pigra is expanding along the national highways obstructing the aesthetic value of the countryside and decreasing driver visibility (increasing the potential for traffic accidents).
經濟 /民生: Mimosa pigra stands obstructs irrigation canals, reducing water flow into rice fields. This negatively affects rice health and growth resulting in reduced crop yields and lower economic gains. As M. pigra is a suitable habitat for rats and crabs, it also encourages the presence of these animals, both of which also cause damage to rice plants.
最後修改 ： 30/05/2006 3:40:55 p.m.