来源： PIER, 2002
Pampas has been listed as a problem weed on forty New Zealand Islands. Dense infestations of pampas have been observed in heavily logged indigenous forests. In the Department of Conservation's, Database C. selloana has a 'weediness' score of 28 (only 27 other taxa from a list of 160 were assignd higher scores). The 'weediness' score is based on the effects the species has on natural systems, and a 'biological success rating' that ranks seeding ability, maturation rate, persistance of seedbank, effectivness on dispersal, establishment-growth rate and vegetative reproduction ability.
Impacts of pampas on different habitats has been listed in the Department of Conservation Publication Review of control methods for pampas grasses in New Zealand .
Several control options are being used in New Zealand. Comprehensive information is available in the Department of Conservation Publication Review of control methods for pampas grasses in New Zealand .
Physical removal includes pulling out seedlings, hand grubbing, digging and the use of earth moving machinery (this can cause damage to surrounding vegetation). Hand removal is useful on sites where there is light infestations and where access is limited. This method can be labour intensive.
Grazing has been used in plantation forests and is found useful in early stages of infestations and has to include several grazings per year. The limitations are access to sites. Oversowing with pastrure species has also been used in cleared plantation areas or areas of site preparation.
Glysophate and monocot-specific herebicides have been found useful, where herbicide treatment is used. Velpar (hexazinone) granules have been used in plantation forests and isolated areas.
Aerial gun sparying and aerial spot spraying by helicopter have been used on difficult to reach sites. A Department of Conservation Publication Aerial spraying of pampas on difficult conservation sites. studies the relative efficiency of three devices used for spraying herbicides from a helicopter for the control of pampas on difficult to reach sites like coastal cliffs, swamps and dunes. Abseiling to reach sites with no access, has also been employed.
Feasibility studies of the biocontrol prospects of pampas are ongoing.
C. selloana is widely naturalised in the Auckland and Waikato Conservancies and is recorded as naturalised and only starting to spread in the Tongariro-Taupo, Canterbury and Southland Conservancies. It is recorded as widespread and invasive in the Northland and East Coast Conservancies, established and spreading in the Bay of Plenty, Wanganui and Nelson-Marlborough Consrvancies, established but in isolated distributions in the Wellington and West Coast Conservancy and present but not naturalised in the Otago Conservancy.
栖地改变: On dunelands it can impact shorebird nesting sites and threaten plant habitat. Pampas is found on the fringes of geothermal areas. Fragile ecosystems can be damaged by invasion of pampas due to change of habitat. (McGlone MSc thesis, 2003)
滋扰人类: Encroachment onto walking and mountain biking tracks (McGlone Msc thesis, 2003).
物理干扰: It can hinder access especially on stream margins and invade surrounding vegetation.
生态系统变化: Pampas has been listed as a wetland weed and a threat to the forest mire and forest-ecotone associations. It is reported to have the potential to invade scrub and forest margins and saline wetland habitats. C. selloana is known to affect the structure, species composition or regeneration of several sites with high conservation value. It has the potential to dominate sites and limit natural regeneration. This is especially so on islands and dunelands. It can disrupt vulnerable ecosystems and replace native vegetation especially on islands, island sea cliffs and dunelands.
经济 /民生: On plantation lands it can compete with planted seedlings, hinder access and provide a fire risk. This can have an implication on silvicultural costs. Seed clinging to kiwifruit rejected for export (Knowles and Tombleson, 1987)
最后修改 ： 3/08/2004 2:10:22 p.m.