來源： Post et al. 1993
Molothrus bonariensis (shiny cowbird) was first recorded on the North American mainland in 1987. By 1991, it had been reported as far north as Maine. In 1995, it was a permanent resident south of Tampa, Florida, with populations augmented each spring from the Greater Antilles (Post et al. 1993) M. bonariensis has been recorded at Dry Tortugas, Monroe County, Miami-Dade County and Loggerhead Key (North American Bird Information Web Site, undated), as well as on Sanibel Island (where according to a study cowbird parasitisation did not appear to threaten bird species) (Prather and Cruz, 2002). In Florida it has been observed feeding along roadsides, on lawns and in bird feeders.
寄生: No definite record of parasitism by this species is known yet for Florida, but red-winged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus) has been claimed to have been a shiny cowbird host. Prairie warbler (Dendroica discolor), black-whiskered vireo (Vireo altiloquus) and northern cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis) are known to have served as cowbird hosts within the Florida range of the brown-headed cowbirds (Paul 1989, Stevenson and Anderson 1994, Cruzet al. 1998, Cruz et al. 2000, in Lowther, 2004).
最後修改 ： 11/03/2005 12:01:03 p.m.