來源： Ogle et al. 2000
到達日期： Before 1940
Ogle et al. (2000) state that, "C. vitalba was first recorded as a weed in New Zealand in 1940 (Webb et al. 1988), although it was known much earlier in gardens and as a local garden plant escapee. It is thought to have come to New Zealand as a garden plant from Europe and the first herbarium specimen of a wild plant was collected in 1936 (West, 1992)."
C. vitalba now occurs as an adventive species almost throughout the lowlands of New Zealand, except for regions north of latitude 37°S.
C. vitalba is probably the most publicised environmental weed in New Zealand, and community groups, government departments, local authorities, schools and paid contractors have tackled infestations over large and small areas, either mechanically or chemically (Timmins, 1995).
棲地改變: Hill et al (2001) report that, "Vines can climb the tallest forest trees, forming a dense, light-absorbing canopy that suppresses all vegetation beneath it. C. vitalba can be so vigorous that the weight of foliage and stems breaks the supporting trees, reducing once-healthy forest to a low, long-lived thicket of vines scrambling over stumps and logs". However Ogle et al (2000) observe that the vines ascend to the canopy of forest but are unable to climb large diameter emergent trees unless shrubs and smaller trees provide a series of ‘stepping stones’ to the crown of tall trees. Their study findings (study area Taihape reserve , New Zealand) indicate that the numbers and variety of understorey trees and shrubs that have been severely reduced following the infestation of C. vitalba correlates with observations of the growth habit of C. vitalba. Ogle et al showed e.g. that not a single canopy tree species had been lost from the Taihape Reserves though 25% or so of the understorey trees and shrubs species had been lost.
最後修改 ： 11/03/2005 12:00:20 p.m.