Tapinoma spp. have 4 segments on the upper surface of the gaster, while in Technomyrmex spp. the gaster has 5 segments on its upper surface (although the fifth may be small and retracted in some specimens). In addition, Technomyrmex spp. workers are generally larger than Tapinoma spp.workers and are black rather than brown (Harris et al. 2005).
T. melanocephalum is in the same genus as the odorous house ant, Tapinoma sessile (Say). However, T. melanocephalum is smaller and colored differently since Tapinoma sessile is entirely dark brown to black (Nickerson et al. 2003).